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Metal forming and welding glossary - C
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Acronym for Computer Aided Design.
Acronym for Computer Aided Manufacturing.
A device to move or do work at an angle to the press
stroke. See cam slide or specific cams: aerial
cam, dwell cam,
incline cam, shimmy
cam, and box cam.
A motion at an angle to the direction of an applied force achieved
by a wedge or cam.
A chart created by the tool designer assuring that the sequence of
operations of a complicated part fall within the 360° slide
forming machine cycle.
A block with one or more angular surfaces that applies force by the
vertical movement of the press
to mating angular surfaces on a cam slide.
Also called driver.
press in which one or more of the slides
are operated by cams; usually a double-action press
in which the blank
holder slide is operated by cams through which the dwell
A device to perform work at an angle to the press
stroke. Most common angle is 90°. Also called cam
Removing excess material after the part has been drawn
or formed. This is done
with a cam activated operation, usually as a secondary
Gradual deviation from straightness of the edge of sheet
or coil stock caused during the slitting
Camber is the deviation from edge straightness. ASTM
Standards define the maximum allowable tolerance
of this deviation of a side edge from a straight line.
Camera shutter steel
and bright polished extra flat and extra precision rolled. Carbon content
is 1.25 with Chromium content at 0.15.
A dished distortion in a flat or nearly flat sheet
metal surface, sometimes referred to as oil
canning. Enclosing a highly reactive metal within a relatively inert
material for the purpose of hot working without undue oxidation
of the active metal.
The phenomenon by which adhesion between the molten filler metal and the base metals, together with surface tension of the molten filler metal, causes distribution of the filler metal between the properly fitted surfaces of the joint to be brazed.
Capital cost: Units
The capital cost is the total cost of the equipment required to perform
the process. Manual processes have lower capital costs than automated
processes. In cost estimation, the capital cost is converted to a time-cost
by dividing it by the capital write-off time, except when the equipment
is totally dedicated to a single product. Then, it is calculated in
the same way as tooling cost.
A steel that owes its specific properties chiefly to the presence of
carbon, without substantial amounts of other alloying elements. It is
also referred to as ordinary steel, straight carbon steel, or plain
A small carbide mill cutter usually one-half inch or less in diameter.
Designed to remove stock from hardened tool steel.
The area of a stock strip
that ties the parts together and carries them through a progressive
die until the final operation.
The surface layer or case of a ferrous
alloy that has been made substantially harder than the interior or core.
Any process of hardening
a ferrous alloy so
that the case or surface is substantially harder than the core or interior.
The point that is defined midway between the extents of a hole in both
the X and Y directions.
A condition in a band of steel where the center (in the direction of
rolling) is longer
than the edges and has a wave
A combined drill and countersink. The countersink is 60° included
angle. Primarily used to drill center holes in the end of parts on the
lathe and spotting
centers of holes to be drilled.
A press having uprights
or-housing resembling the letter "C". Also called gap frame
or overhanging press.
A drafting practice which dimensions repetitive features from each
Machined or cast slots in the upper and lower die
shoe and large adapters
for handling purposes.
A precision ground block, which has a slot or hole on one surface and
a leg off the opposite surface from the slot or hole. One surface of
the leg is on the center line of the slot or hole. Used with an indicator
to find the exact edge of a surface.
A beveled surface to eliminate an otherwise sharp corner that is typically
about a 45° angle. A relieved angular cutting edge at a tooth
Surface ripples and cracks induced by forming.
The chemical composition of steel indicating the amount of carbon,
manganese, sulfur, phosphorous and a host of other elements.
A socket head cap screw with the head and the upper portion of the
body turned down, leaving a minimum number of threads on the end of
the body. Used where the screw hole in the detail does not align with
the threaded hole in the mounting surface. Also called Eberly screws,
rubber screws, or Kelly screws.
The slope of the chord drawn
between any two specific points on a stress-strain curve. See also modulus
steel usually made by the electric furnace process in which chromium
and nickel participate as alloying elements. The stainless steel of
18% chromium and 8% nickel are the better known of the chromium-nickel
A trough in which blanks,
or parts are fed to or conveyed away from a die
A continuous arc starting and ending at the same point.
A regular pattern of circles, [2.5 mm (0.1 in.) diameter], marked on
a sheet metal blank.
Circle grid analysis
A technique of measuring strains on deformed sheet
steel. The result can then be plotted on the forming
A roll formed
shape made up of two materials simultaneously fed into the roll
forming mill to produce a composite section.
These are slight indentations at the edge of one side of metal stock
caused by pressure from turret
press holding devices.
Class 1 surface quality steel
A class of cold rolled steel processed
to meet requirements for controlled surface texture, flatness, and temper
requirements. This steel is commonly produced for use in exposed applications.
Classes of milled pockets
Class "A" - bottom and sides machined flat and square to
each other and to dimensions. Class "B" - bottom machined
flat. Sides need not be flat or square. Class "C" - strictly
clearance. Loose tolerance
on dimensions and finish of bottom and sides.
The space, per side, between the punch
and die. This space is
also called breakage on trim and/or pierce
dies. It is also the space between any two details to avoid interference.
See nutter die.
Clinch nut die
See nutter die.
Clock spring material
Alloy steel available in a pre-hardened condition between RC 45 and
This steel product is manufactured and processed with great and extreme
care exercised in each step of its production. Manufactured from carbon
range of .90/1.03 with Rockwell range C 48/51. Clock spring quality
has been ground and polished with edges dressed. It is usually supplied
dark blue in color and has a wide range of uses, such as coiled and
flat mechanical springs, ignition vibrator springs, springs for timing
devices, springs for the electric and electronic fields, steel tapes,
Clock spring strip
Clock spring steel made available in a strip form.
A tool that creates a
work-shape-imposing orifice, cavity, or passageway.
See flattened hem.
Industry acronym for Computer Numerical Control. See NC.
CNC punch press
Machine supplying compression force for reshaping materials and being
controlled by a computer numerical control device.
CNC turret press
Automatic punch press
indexing the material and selecting the intended tool out of the rotary
tool holding device (turret) totally by computer control for piercing,
blanking and forming
workpieces as Programmed.
The paint, varnish or lacquer applied to a surface in a single application
(one layer) to form a properly distributed film when dry.
The process of appling a coat to a metal surface.
A system of applying a number of coats separately,
in a predetermined order, at suitable intervals to allow for drying
In the Sheet Mill, the amount of zinc on a galvanized sheet
measured in ounces per square foot.
Process in which the customer and the supplier review and modify a
design to simplify manufacturability of a part.
A length of steel wound into roll-form.
Creases, ridges, or marks appearing in sheets
as parallel lines transverse to the direction of rolling
and generally extending across the width of the sheet. Coil
breaks are usually caused by improper coiling or leveling.
They are also referred to as crossbreaks.
A curvature of the strip in the lengthwise sense, parallel to the direction
in which the strip was rolled or uncoiled.
Coiled flat sheet or strip metal that is usually in one continuous
piece or length.
A combination coining and straightening operation
performed in special cavity dies designed to impart a specific amount
of working in specified areas of a forging
to relieve the stresses developed during heat treatment.
A compressive metal flowing action. A closed-die squeezing operation
in which all surfaces of a workpiece
are confined or restrained, resulting in a well-defined imprint of the
die on the work. A restriking
operation used to sharpen or change an existing radius or profile.
The initial development of a blank
or part on paper or in wax during the designing of a die.
See cold working.
The process of upsetting the ends of a bar, wires, or tube stock while
A metal finishing process that subjects strip or sheet steel to a cold-reduction
mill. Steel that has been subjected to the cold rolling process is considerably
thinner and stronger than hot-rolled sheet. See cold
rolled sheet and cold rolled steel.
Cold rolled sheet
A mill product produced from a hot-rolled pickled coil
that has been given substantial cold reduction at room temperature.
The usual end product is characterized by improved surface, greater
uniformity in thickness, and improved mechanical properties as compared
with hot-rolled sheet.
A product manufactured from hot rolled descaled (pickled) coils by cold
reducing to the desired thickness, generally followed by annealing and
temper rolling. If the sheet is not annealed after cold reduction it
is known as full hard.
Cold rolled steel
Steel that was reduced to final thickness in the cold state by a rolling
mill that creates a smooth surface with slight skin hardness.
Rolling metal at a temperature below the softening point of the metal
to create strain hardening (work-hardening). Same as cold reduction,
except that the working method is limited to rolling. Cold rolling changes
the mechanical properties of strip
and produces certain useful combinations of hardness, strength, stiffness,
ductility and other
characteristics known as tempers. Term applied to the operation of passing
unheated metal through rolls for the purpose of reducing its gauge.
Cold rolling mill
A mill that reduces the cross sectional area of the metal by rolling
at approximately room temperature.
Defective weld due to improper contact or inadequate heat during welding.
Material hardened naturally through forming
at ambient temperatures.
deformation of metal under conditions of temperature and strain
rate that induce strain
hardening. Usually, but not necessarily, conducted at room temperature.
Also referred to as cold forming or cold forging. Contrast with hot
Collapsible tool (segmented)
A mold having a removable center core which keeps the perimeter pieces
in place during spinning.
A four post single slide
See compound die.
Combined drill and countersink
See center drill.
The range of difference that a product's specifications can deviate
from the ordered specifications and still meet the industry accepted
ranges as defined by ASTM Standards.
Standard materials commonly available through supply houses.
Composite forming methods vary depending on the form of the fibers
used. Chopped fibers are mixed with resin and shaped by polymer molding
techniques; resin-impregnated mats of fibers are laid in a mold or pressed
together and then allowed to cure; and continuous fibers coated with
resin are wound on a mandrel
to make spherical, cylindrical and other shapes.
Tool used to pierce, form
and blank a part at the
same time, with one stroke of the press.
The maximum compressive stress a
material is capable of developing. With a brittle material that fails
in compression by fracturing, the compressive strength has a definite
value. In the case of ductile, malleable, or semi-viscous materials
(which do not fail in compression by a shattering fracture), the value
obtained for compressive strength is an arbitrary value dependent on
the degree of distortion that is regarded as effective failure of the
material. See ductility,
A stress that causes an elastic body to deform (shorten) in the direction
of the applied load. Contrast with tensile
Concave perimeter contour
Curvature of the peripheral edge viewed from outside of the part.
Concave surface contour
Curvature viewed from outside of the material. See O.S.M.
Concealed Head Fastener
A fastener installed in a blind hole.
Dimensional relationship of 2 or more items sharing a common center
Perceived identity of color exhibited by a pair of colors, each with
different spectral distribution curves. Also called Metameric match.
A hole in which the center line is used to dimension other holes or
surfaces. Sometimes referred to as a point of origin or coordinating
Continuously welding one coil to another at the
entry end and splitting off coils of a specific weight at delivery end.
See roll forming,
shape on die members. Also
Conventional draw die
See draw die.
Convex perimeter contour
The curvature of the peripheral edge viewed from outside of the part.
Convex surface contour
The curvature viewed from outside of the material. See O.S.M.
Cookie cutter die
A die employing a thin
strip of steel formed
to the outline of a part and a flat metal plate or block of wood for
the punch. A cookie cutter
die is used to cut non-metallic material, soft metals, and low run prototype
sheet metal parts. See steel
Coordinate measuring machine (CMM)
A machine for measuring three dimensional (X, Y, Z) coordinates on
a component for inspection or geometry description purposes. The basic
CMM system is comprised of four components, the machine itself, the
probing system, the computer system and the measuring software.
See construction hole.
Having all elements, features, Dimensions or functions existing in
one geometric plane.
A milling cutter with serrated flutes or teeth. See roughing
Three surfaces meeting at one point.
Capability of a leveling
machine to remove or reduce shape defects across the strip, coil,
or sheet, in addition
to flattening lengthwise curvatures.
Metal that has been formed using the corrugating
process. As a defect, material with alternate ridges and furrows or
a series of deep short waves.
The forming of sheet
metal into a series of straight, parallel alternate ridges and grooves
with a rolling mill
equipped with matched roller dies or a press
brake equipped with specially shaped punch
Transverse ripples caused by a variation in strip
shape during hot or cold reduction.
A rotary, pilot guided, end-cutting tool, having one or more cutting
lips and usually having straight or helical flutes.
Enlarging a hole to a limited depth producing a flat bottom in the
enlargement. A machining
or coining operation to generate a cylindrical
A funnel shaped enlargement at the outer end of a drilled hole having
an 82° included angle to allow the head of a screw to be flush with
or below the surface. Also, a bit or drill for making a countersunk
Machining or coining
operation to generate a conical angle on a hole.
Discontinuity or cracked condition on the edge of the strip.
press whose slides
are actuated by a crankshaft.
A depression at the termination of an arc weld.
A coating defect consisting of small, apparently
uncoated, spots of coated plate consisting of a very thin film of coating
that has been contaminated by oil, silicone, or other foreign matter.
Eyeholing is similar
to cratering, but with metal exposure in the crater.
A term used in a hemming
operation for the amount the part reduces in size along the flange
radius when forming from a 90° flange to a full
fold or hem.
The forming of relatively
small corrugations in order to set down and
lock a seam, to create an arc in a strip
of metal, or to reduce an existing arc or diameter. See also corrugating.
A curvature across the width of the strip at a 90° angle to the
direction in which the strip has been rolled or uncoiled.
See coil breaks.
The physical area of a trim steel that overlaps the top of another
trim steel, such as the area of an upper trim steel that is notched
to go over the top of a lower scrap
cutter. The distance between the two steels in this area, when die
is closed, should be at least twice stock thickness.
The upper part (head) of a press
frame. On hydraulic
presses, the crown usually contains the cylinder; on mechanical
presses, the crown contains the drive mechanism. A shape (crown)
ground into a flat roll to ensure flatness of cold
rolled sheet (and hot) and strip.
Progressive accumulation of tolerances
resulting from multiple operations or assembly of multiple parts.
A sheet metal part that
is the product of the first drawing
operation. Also, any cylindrical part or shell closed at one end.
Cup fracture (cup-and-cone fracture)
A mixed-mode fracture, often seen in tensile
test specimens of a ductile material, in which the central portion
undergoes plane-strain fracture
and the surrounding region undergoes plane-stress fracture. One of the
mating fracture surfaces looks like a miniature cup; it has a central
depressed flat-face region surrounded by a shear lip. The other fracture
surface looks like a miniature truncated cone.
The first step in deep
A mechanical test used to determine the ductility and stretching properties
of sheet metal. It consists of measuring the maximum part depth that
can be formed before fracture. The test is typically carried out by
stretching the test piece clamped at its edges into a circular die using
a punch with a hemispherical end. See also cup
fracture and Olsen
The act of forming
an edge of circular cross section along a sheet,
workpiece, or at
the end of a shell or tube.
Metal pins used in conjunction with a die
cushion to transfer pressure from the cushion to the bottom of a
die pad. They are also
called air pins, cushion pins, pressure pins, and transfer pins.
To separate any portion of a workpiece
from any other portion of the same workpiece by a step of machining
(e.g., grinding, drilling, boring, milling, planing), severing (e.g.,
or by intrusion of a sharp-edged or pointed tool without removal of
material (e.g., stabbing, splitting, intrusive punching). See pierce.
Cut and carry method
A method in which the part under fabrication is not entirely detached
from the strip or is
pushed back into the strip for transporting to a succeeding station
in a progressive
The normal edge that results from the shearing,
slitting or trimming
of a mill edge.
A pair of blades positioned in dies
or equipment (or a section of the die milled to produce the same effect
as inserted blades) used to separate the forging from the bar after
are completed. Used only when forgings are produced from relatively
long bars instead of from individual, precut multiples or blanks. See
See die life.
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