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Metal forming and welding glossary - E
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The formation of ears or scalloped edges around the top of a drawn
shell, resulting from directional differences in the plastic-working
properties of rolled metal with, across, and at angles to the direction
A socket head cap screw with the head and the upper portion of the
body turned down, leaving a minimum number of threads on the end of
the body. Used where the screw hole in the detail does not align with
the threaded hole in the mounting surface. Same definition as for Chicago
screws or Kelly screws.
The offset portion of the driveshaft that governs the stroke or distance
the crosshead moves on a mechanical or manual shear.
press in which an eccentric, instead of a crankshaft, is used to
move the slide.
A transition between surfaces.
Condition resulting from any forming,
insertion or spot welding operation too close to an edge.
Edge deckle (mill edge
Waviness of an unslit coil
edge, as received from the material supplier.
Material extrusion beyond an outside edge through metalforming.
Edger (edging impression)
The portion of a die
impression that distributes metal during forging
into areas where it is most needed in order to facilitate filling the
cavities of subsequent impressions to be used in the forging sequence.
A dimension between the edge of the part and a feature.
The dressing of metal strip
edges by rolling, filing
The maximum limits of forming
depth that can be achieved with a multiple action press that is sometimes
called maximum draw or
maximum depth of draw.
The removal of a part from a die
by an air blast or mechanical means.
A mechanism for removing a part from a die.
Also called kicker or
A rod used to push out a formed piece.
Stretching of the material below the point at which a permanent set
takes place. That is, in the range where the metal acts spring-like
A section of a part that has two equilibrium positions and can be manually
switched between each position. Elastic instabilities are created when
a highly deformed area is constrained on all sides by regions of less
deformed areas. Elastic instabilities are also referred to as oil
The maximum stress a material can sustain without any permanent strain
upon complete release of the stress. See also proportional
The property of a material by which the deformation
caused by stress disappears upon removal of the stress. A perfectly
elastic body completely recovers its original shape and dimensions after
the release of stress.
A consumable used in the welding process. The electrode carries the
current between the electrode holder and the base material. In metal
arc welding it is usually a consumable electrode which also supplies
filler material for the weld. Depending on the type of welding, there are a numbe of types of electrodes such as:
a. Metal-Arc. Filler metal in the form of a wire or rod, whether bare or covered, through which current is conducted between the electrode holder and the arc.
b. Carbon-Arc. A carbon or graphite rod through which current is conducted between the electrode holder and the arc.
c. Atomic. One of the two tungsten rods between the points of which the arc is maintained.
d. Electrolytic Oxygen-Hydrogen Generation. The conductors by which current enters and leaves the water, which is decomposed by the passage of the current.
e. Resistance Welding. The part or parts of a resistance welding machine through which the welding current and the pressure are applied directly to the work.
Cold rolled or black
plate to which a coating
of zinc is applied by electro-deposition and typically used for applications
in which corrosion resistance and paintability is a primary concern.
Electrolytic tin coated sheets (ETCS)
Cold rolled sheet coated
with tin by electrodeposition through an acid or alkaline
A process for forming
metal by the direct application of an intense, transient magnetic field.
The workplace is formed without mechanical contact by the passage of
a pulse of electric cur-rent through a forming coil.
Also known as magnetic pulse forming.
Electron beam welding (EBW)
Melting and fusing of metals by use of a collimated stream of electrons
traveling at close to the speed of light. The kinetic energy from the
electrons converts to heat on impact.
Cast or welded projections in the shape of an ear on the outboard section
of a die. They are used for handling the die
The amount of permanent extension of the material before it fractures.
Elongation takes place in the part during forming
or drawing operations.
See also elongation percent.
The extension of a uniform section of a specimen expressed as a percentage
of the original gage length: Elongation percent (%) = (Lx -
Lo) / Lo x 100. Where Lo is the original gage length and, Lx
is the final gage length.
A relatively shallow indentation or raised design with basically no
change in metal thickness.
A process for producing raised or sunken designs or relief in sheet
material by means of male and female dies, theoretically with no change
in metal thickness or by passing sheet or a strip
of metal by passing between rolls of desired pattern. (See patterned
or embossed sheet). Examples are letters, ornamental pictures, and
ribs for stiffening. Heavy embossing and coining are similar operations.
A die used for producing
Enclosed scam and pocket
Formed, spot welded or welded area that can entrap plating solutions.
Seen after cut off, caused by the release of residual forming
stresses in material being roll
formed. where one longitudinal end springs open and the other springs
Testing of a product or finish for resistance to attack by specific
A pin used in conjunction with pressure
pins to distribute and balance the load on a die
cushion.These are also called balancing pins.
A cupping test
used to assess the ductility
of sheet metal. The method
consists of forcing a conical or hemispherical-ended plunger into the
specimen and measuring the depth of the impression
The shaping of metal parts in which the forming
pressure is generated by an explosive charge. See also high-energy-rate
A mechanism attached to a press
for removing a part from a die. Also called an iron
Pierced and formed hole in sheet
metal in which the metal has been stretched creating a tubular shape.
The turning up or drawing
out of a flange around
a hole which has been punched in a previous operation. Also called hole
flanging. The punching and flanging of a hole in one operation generating
a slug. The cutting
or tearing (piercing)
and flanging of a hole in one operation without generating a slug.Also
called spearing or spear punching.
A metal forming process
which a punch compresses
a billet (hot or cold) confined in a container so that the billet material
flows through a die in
the same direction as the punch.
Metal bands wrapped through the center or eye of the coil
to prevent it from uncoiling and to hold strip mults together.
A coating defect,
similar to cratering, but with exposed metal in the void.
The displacing of material about an opening in sheet
or plate so that a lip protruding above the surface is formed.
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