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Home > Metal Forming and Welding Glossary > F

Metal forming and welding glossary - F

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Fabrication

A number of metalworking techniques that allow a part to be assembled from smaller components. Welding, adhesive bonding and fastening by the use of bolts and rivets are the most widely used examples.

Face of the weld

The exposed surface of the weld, made by an arc or gas welding process, on the side from which welding was done.

Factor

A factor is a rib-like projection on a draw ring or blank holder for controlling metal flow. It is also called a spleen or bead.

Feather edge

A sharp reduction in gauge, metal thinning, on a band edge caused by grooves worn in rolls due to extensive rolling of the same width material that create a knife edge appearance.  This is done for coating control on edge. 

Feature-to-feature

Dimension between two features on a part.

Feed

See progression.

Feed eccentric

A screw adjusted device used to set the feed length on a slide forming machine.

Feed unit

An integral part of the slide forming machine, eccentric-driven and cam controlled, that advances either wire or strip in accurate increments.

Female tool

A mold duplicating the exterior dimensions of the part.

Ferritic

Referring to iron content.

Ferro magnetic

Various alloys that exhibit magnetic qualities.

Ferrous

Metals containing iron as a major alloying constituent.

Fill slide

See filler cam.

Filler cam

A dwell type cam slide that generally fits the part shape and retracts to permit loading and unloading of the part. Also called fill slide.

Filler metal

The metal to be added in making a weld.

Fillet

The concave intersection of two surfaces.

Fillet weld

Joining method of filling an inside edge with welding metal.

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Final hem contact path

Angle between a line (formed by a point on the final hem steel at first contact with flange to the same point at end of final hem) and the mating surface.

Final hem dwell

Duration of time which the final hem steel stay at final hem position.

Final hem face geometry

Angle of the final hem steels measured relative to the mating flange area.

Final hem force

Maximum force required to bend flange from pre hem position to final hem position.

Final hem springback

Elastic recovery that follows plastic deformation when the final hem load is removed.

Final hem steel

Hardened steels mounted to the hemmer to bend the flange from pre-hem angle to final hem.

Finish

The surface appearance of a product. The forging operation in which the part is forged into its final shape in the finish die. If only one finish operation is scheduled to be performed in the finish die, this operation will be identified simply as finish; first, second, or third finish designations are so termed when one or more finish operations are to be performed in the same finish die.

Finish form

The act of forming a panel shape to the finish position. Also see restrike.

Finishes

The texture of the steel surface which is determined by the grit on the rolls or by the grind on the rolls in the case of bright finish.

Finite element method (FEM)

A method of analysis developed for prediction, practical forming of the instantaneous velocities, strain rates, strains, stresses and temperatures within the deforming metal.

Fire cracks

An irregular pattern of lines on the surface of a sheet caused by rolling with a fire cracked roll. Fire cracks will develop when a roll is not properly cooled.

Fish eyes

A coating defect consisting of undissolved particles in the coating usually surrounded by a circular crater.  The particles are usually resinous and are raised up from the cured surface with the appearance of the eye of a fish. 

Fit-up

Degree of physical match between two or more components.

Fixture

Tooling designed to locate and hold components in position.

Flange

A projecting rim or edge of a part, usually narrow and of approximately constant width for stiffening or fastening.

Flange die

Die used to form a flange from a blank.

Flange inside breakline radius

Inside of metal radius of the upturned flange of the outer panel formed by the flanging process over the flange die corner radius.

Flange inside of metal breakline

Midpoint of the inside of metal breakline radius.

Flange outside breakline radius

Outside of metal radius of the upturned flange of the outer panel formed by the flanging process. It is equivalent to the sum of the inside breakline radius and the sheet metal thickness.

Flange outside of metal breakline

Midpoint of the outside of metal breakline radius.

Flange relief

Flange material that has been cut to allow flange to lay flat after final hem.

Flange steel

A steel used in a forming operation in which a narrow strip at the edge of a sheet or part is bent down along a straight or curved line. Also called a wiping steel.

Flange stripper

A stripper that pushes against the bottom edge or surface of a flange to release the part from the stool.

Flanging

A variable that is intentionally changed in a controlled manner during an experiment to observe its effects on the response variable, sometimes called an independent variable or causal variable.

Flanging springback

Elastic recovery that follows plastic deformation when the flanging load is removed.

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Flash

The excess metal attached to a part after a forming operation. Also, the excess material that squeezes out between the joint lines of mold dies.

Flash welding

A resistance welding process in which fusion is produced, simultaneously over the entire area of abutting surfaces, by the heat obtained from resistance to the flow of current between two surfaces and by the application of pressure after heating is substantially completed. Flashing is accompanied by expulsion of metal from the joint.

Flat (or matte)

Coating surface which displays no gloss when observed at any angle. A perfectly diffused reflecting surface.

Flat latch needle galling

The damaging of one or both metallic surfaces by removal of particles from localized areas due to seizure curing sliding friction.

Flat pattern

A two-dimensional development that represents the part before it is formed into a three dimensional shape.

Flat position

The position in which welding is performed from the upper side of the joint and the face of the weld is approximately horizontal.

Flat rolled steel

Steel produced on rolling mills utilizing relatively smooth, cylindrical rolls. The width to thickness ratio of flat rolled products is usually fairly large. Examples of flat rolled steel products are hot-rolled, cold-rolled, and coated sheets and coils, plus tin mill products.

Flat surface contour

Curvature with no radius.

Flatness

The absence of any gap or clearance when a strip is placed, without applying any pressure, between two parallel-faced plates.

Flattened hem

A flange that is folded back over upon itself. It is used primarily for appearance and removal of dangerous sheared edges. Also called closed hem.

Flattening dies

Dies used to flatten sheet metal hems; that is, dies that can flatten a bend by closing it. These dies consist of a top and bottom die with a flat surface that can close one section (flange) to another (hem, seam).

Flex roll

A movable roll designed to push up against a sheet as it passes through a roller leveler. The flex roll can be adjusted to deflect the sheet any amount up to the roll diameter.

Flex rolling

Passing sheets through a flex roll unit to minimize yield-point elongation in order to reduce the tendency for stretcher strains to appear during forming.

Floating die

A die mounted in a die holder or a punch mounted in its holder such that a slight amount of motion compensates for tolerance in the die parts, the work, or the press. A die mounted on heavy springs to allow vertical motion in some trimming, shearing, and forming operations.

Floating fastener

Hardware which allows the threaded portion to move within its particular confines without rotating, to compensate for misalignment.

Floating form punch

A draw die punch that is supported by air cylinders or other means instead of being tied to the inner press ram. This allows adjustment for the amount of preform desired and helps to eliminate binding between the punch and the die.

Flow lines

Texture showing the direction of metal flow during hot or cold working. Flow lines can often be revealed by etching the surface or a section of a metal part.

Flower diagram

A drawing which superimposes the cross section contour of a roll formed part at each roll station, starting with the flat incoming material and ending with the desired profile. It depicts the anticipated flow of material in the forming process.

Fluid forming

A modification of the Guerin process, fluid forming differs from the fluid-cell process in that the die cavity, called a pressure dome, is not completely filled with rubber, but with hydraulic fluid retained by a cup-shaped rubber diaphragm. See also rubber-pad forming.

Fluid-cell process

A modification of the Guerin process for forming sheet metal, the fluid-cell process uses higher pressure and is primarily designed for forming slightly deeper parts, using a rubber pad as either the die or punch. A flexible hydraulic fluid cell forces an auxiliary rubber pad to follow the contour of the form block and exert a nearly uniform pressure at all points on the workpiece. See also fluid forming and rubber-pad forming.

Fluting

Series of rounded parallel grooves that shows on the surface of metals.

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Flying cam

A cam attached to the upper half of the die with a driver on the bottom half of the die. Also called an aerial cam, dog leg cam, or walking cam.

Flying die cutoff

The system used in roll forming to cut the formed shape to length in a continuous operation. Similar in action to a punch press, but designed to allow the die to move in line with the roll formed shape during the cutoff cycle, and to make a cut on the fly based on a signal from a trigger mechanism.

Flying cut-off device

A cutting die, saw, or wheel that cuts work to length while it is moving.

Flying shear

A machine for cutting continuous rolled products to length that does not require a halt in rolling, but rather moves along the runout table at the same speed as the product while performing the cutting, and then returns to the starting point in time to cut the next piece.

Foil

Metal in sheet form that is less than 0.15 mm (0.006 in.) thick.

Folds

Defects caused in metal by continued fabrication of overlapping surfaces.

Follow die

A progressive die consisting of two or more parts in a single holder; used with a separate lower die to perform more than one operation (such as piercing and blanking) on a part in two or more stations.

Follower block (tail block)

This serves to clamp the workpiece to the tool.

Forehand welding

A gas welding technique in which the flare is directed against the base metal ahead of the completed weld.

Form

A bend, or the process of bending a metal formed part.

Form block

Tooling, usually the male part, used for forming sheet metal contours. Form blocks are generally used in rubber-pad forming.

Form die

A die used to change the shape of a sheet metal blank with minimal plastic flow.

Form lifter

A cam-operated motion used for lifting the mandrel or forming in an opposite plane.

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Formability

The ease with which a metal can be shaped through plastic deformation. Evaluation of the formability of a metal involves measurement of strength, ductility, and the amount of deformation required to cause fracture. The term workability is used interchangeably with formability; however, formability refers to the shaping of sheet metal, while workability refers to shaping materials by bulk forming.

Formed

A material, metal for this purpose, that has undergone plastic deformation between tools (dies) to obtain the final configuration.

Formed tab

Small flange bent at an angle from the body of a metal workpiece.

Forming

The plastic deformation of a billet or a blanked sheet between tools (dies) to obtain the final configuration. Metalforming processes are typically classified as bulk forming and sheet forming. Also referred to as metalworking. Making any change in the shape of a metal piece which does not intentionally reduce the metal thickness and which produces a useful shape.

Forming die

A die in which the shape of the punch and die is directly reproduced in the metal with little or no metal flow.

Forming limit diagram (FLD)

A bending operation in which a narrow strip at the edge of a sheet is bent up or down along a straight or curved line. It is used for edge strengthening, appearance, rigidity and the removal of sheared edges. A flange is often used as a fastening surface.

Forming slides

Cam operated units used to drive tools on a slide forming machine.

Forming tool

A slide mounted tool used for bending on a slide forming machine.

Form-to-form

Dimension between two forms on a part.

Footage of coil

The length of the steel strip that makes up a coil.

Fourslide machine

A machine, either horizontal or vertical, used to fabricate formed metal stampings and wire forms, by the action of four forming slides acting upon a stationary mandrel or center tool.

Fracture

The surface appearance of metals when they are broken.

Free-shoe die

A die constructed so the upper shoe is linked to the lower shoe and not secured in any way to the press ram. Used for blanking or secondary cutting operations. Also called bumper-actuated die.

French cut/French notch

A notch usually cut on one side of a stock strip in a progressive die to control stock width and progression of the stock. See pitch notch.

Friction gouges or scratches

A series of relatively short surface scratches variable in form and severity. See galling.

Front cut-off

A device driven by a cam that is mounted on the front shaft on a slide forming machine used to severe the blank from the strip before forming.

Functionality

The degree to which the designed part will perform to meet its intended purpose.

Fuse welded joint

Welding method without addition of a filler metal that is used to generate little, if any, eruption above the original surface level.

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Advantage Fabricated Metals
A Division of Corrugated Metals, Inc.

We invest in our customers.™
3575 Morreim Drive • Belvidere, Illinois 61008
Phone: 1-815-323-1310 • Fax: 1-815-323-1317
Email: info@advantagefabricatedmetals.com

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