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Metal forming and welding glossary - H
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steel produced to a Rockwell
hardness range of 70 to 85 on the B scale. Product of this temper
is intended for limited cold forming
and will only withstand 90° bends made across the rolling
A partial penetration piercing,
creating a locating button
with a height of about 1/2 material thickness.
See hem steel.
A device used in arc welding to protect the face and neck. It is equipped with a filter glass lens and is designed to be held by hand.
Cast cores in upper and lower shoes used for handling purposes.
A device bolted to the side of a mold die
for handling of the mold.
Tooling made for a specific part commonly referred to as dedicated
and tempered spring steel strip
A medium or high carbon quality steel strip
which has been subjected to the sequence of heating, quenching
Any process which increases the hardness of
a metal. Usually heating and quenching
certain iron base alloys from a temperature either within or above the
critical temperature range.
The degree to which a metal will resist cutting, abrasion, penetration,
bending and stretching.
The indicated hardness of metals will differ somewhat with the specific
apparatus measuring hardness. (See Brinnell
strength also is an indication of hardness.
Fasteners inserted into a sheet
Information that should be conveyed to the part supplier specifying
part numbers, description and quality of fasteners.
Long vein-like marks appearing on the surface of certain metals, in
the direction of the maximum shear stress, when the metal is subjected
to deformation beyond the yield
point. See Luders
Heat affected zone (HAZ)
That portion of the base metal whose structure or properties have been changed by the heat of welding or cutting.
Subjecting metals to heat treatment.
Heating and cooling a solid metal or alloy in such a way that desired
structures, conditions or properties are attained. Heating for the sole
purpose of hot working is excluded from the meaning of this term. Heat
treatment usually markedly affects strength, hardness,
and similar properties of both metals and their alloys.
A condition caused by too much coating
being applied to the strip.
Product with a thickness above the customer's maximum gauge tolerance.
Steel plate that deviates both plus and minus by not meeting customer
A block or plate usually mounted on or attached to a lower die
and serving to prevent or minimize deflection of punches or cams. When
heel blocks are used with a mating heel post, this assembly can be used
alone or in conjunction with guide
pins that help align the die to prevent damage when the press
ram has too much play.
A wear plate used on the heel block. See also wear
plate and heel block.
A male member that has either a machined wear surface or wear
plates mounted to it that mates with a heel
block. It is incorporated in dies to hold the die
alignment and absorbs lateral pressures produced within the die.
A device used in arc welding to protect the face and neck. It is equipped with a filter glass and is designed to be worn on the head.
Hem (also called Dutch bend)
Edge of material doubled over onto itself for the purpose of safe handling
or to increase edge stiffness.
Die used in hemming.
Hem die plus
The amount of stock added to a part in an area to be hemmed to compensate
for the amount the part reduces in size along the flange
radius when hemmed. Also see creep.
Hem edge roll
When the outer panel rolls up off of the hem die
during the hemming process.
Hem flange split
Usually observed in concave edge and concave surface flanging and hemming.
The length of the flange
after final hemming.
Usually observed with wrinkling
after flanging or pre-hemming. Severe wrinkles in convex edge hemming
may develop hem-out.
The steel in a hem die that finishes and flattens
the hem. Also called hammer steel.
A bend of 180° (made in two steps). First, a sharp-angle bend is
made and then the bend is closed using a flat punch
and a die.
A die which folds the
edge of the part back over on itself. The edge may or may not be completely
flattened to form a closed hem.
A common abbreviation for high-energy-rate forming.
High collar lock washer
A special type of lock washer that is thicker than standard and smaller
in diameter than standard. Designed to fit in a standard counterbored
hole for a socket head cap screw.
A group of forming
processes that applies a high rate of strain to the material being formed
through the application of high rates of energy transfer. See also explosive
A condition that occurs when the hardness of the steel is above the
maximum limit as specified by the customer. See Rockwell
See swivel ring.
An object used to secure a workpiece.
Slight indentations or scuff marks on one side of the stock which can
result from the pressure of hold down devices during shearing
Hold-down plate (pressure pad)
A pressurized plate designed to hold the workpiece
down during a press operation.
In practice, this plate often serves as a stripper and is also called
a stripper plate.
Units: mm (SI), inch (Imperial) The minimum hole diameter which can
be created by the process. Casting, stamping
and molding impose limits on minimum hole size which can be overcome
by creating the holes with a secondary process such as drilling or laser
The forming of an
integral collar around the periphery of a previously formed hole in
a sheet metal part. See extruding.
Rounding of the top edge of a pierced feature caused by the ductility
of the metal, which flows in the direction of the applied force.
Dimension between the center of a hole and another feature.
Distance from the center line of a hole to the edge of a formed feature.
Dimension between the centers of holes.
Homing the die
Adjusting press ram/slide
so die is on bottom or
on the stop blocks at the bottom of the press
stroke. Also called bottoming the die.
An annealing treatment at a fairly high temperature designed to eliminate
or reduce chemical segregation.
A fine grit stone used with a fluid for sharpening or smoothing a surface.
Also see superior
A container which holds cleaning and lubricant fluids for wet hones.
Also called minnow bucket.
A material in which the stress is linearly proportional to strain is
said to obey Hooke's law. See also modulus
A cam that travels 90°
to press stroke. See
Lower section of the die on which the part nests. Horns are also called
an adapter, boss,
die post, locator,
master, master plug,
and stool. The portion
of the die or part that
The development of a blank
or part during the tryout of the die.
Hot rolled sheets
Manufactured by hot rolling slabs to the required thickness. Steel
which was rollerformed from a hot plastic state into final shape and
is characterized by a rough, scaly surface.
A term used for a quick fix of a trim steel that should only be done
in an emergency situation. It is done by welding the steel and roughing
it back close to the original surface. Next the steel is reheated until
it becomes molten red and then the press
is cycled to get the location of the mating surface. Die
clearance must be added after this location is obtained.
A machine that exerts working pressure by hydraulic means.
Hydraulic press brake
A press brake in which
the ram is actuated directly
by hydraulic cylinders.
A shear in which the
crosshead is actuated by hydraulic cylinders.
Hydraulic-mechanical press brake
press brake that uses hydraulic cylinders attached to mechanical
linkages to power the ram
through its working stroke.
If energy transfer is in the form of pressurized liquid flow then it
is called hydraulics. The oil is kept in a reservoir and the pump draws
it in and pushes it into the system. Because the oils can't escape,
pressure builds up and the energy stored in the oil is then used to
operate machinery, using high pressure hoses, valves and actuators.
See gas cylinder.
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