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Metal forming and welding glossary - T
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Table top hemmer (hemming gate)
Lamb's table top hemmer.
Usually refers to a temporary weld used to hold parts in place while
more extensive. final welds are made. In some sheet
metal applications, tack gelds may provide sufficient strength to eliminate
the need for an "all around" fillet weld.
The forming of one
or more identical bends having parallel axes by wiping sheet
metal around one or more radius dies in a single operation. The sheet,
which may have side flanges,
is clamped against the radius die
and then made to conform to the radius die by pressure from a rocker-plate
die that moves along the periphery of the radius die.
The slope of the stress-strain curve at any specified stress or strain.
See also modulus
Operation to create internal threads by either cutting or forming.
Tear drop hem
Preferred for lower strength materials.
Industry-standard code that indicates the hardness
of the steel.
Identifying systems to denote the hardness of a particular material.
Subjecting metal sheet
or strip to a slight
amount of cold rolling
following annealing to
strains. Also termed "pinch pass" or skin rolled.
Tempered and polished spring steel strip
Also known as clock spring steel. This product, while similar to general
description under heading of Tempered Spring Steel Strip, is manufactured
and processed with great and extreme care exercised in each step of
its production. Manufactured from carbon range of .90/1.03% with Rockwell
range C 48/51. Clock spring quality has been ground and polished with
edges dressed. It is usually supplied dark blue in color and has a wide
range of uses, such as coiled and flat mechanical springs, ignition
vibrator springs, springs for timing devices, springs for the electric
and electronic fields, steel tapes, rules, etc.
Tempered spring steel strip
Any medium or high carbon (excluding clock spring) strip steel of spring
quality which has been hardened
and tempered to meet specifications. Where
specification calls for blue or straw color, the same is accomplished
by passing through heat prepared at proper temperature depending on
color required. Blue is developed at approximately 600°F.
A metal heat treating process to remove internal stresses at temperatures
above those required for stress relieving.
The greatest longitudinal stress steel can sustain without breaking.
A stress that causes two parts of an elastic body, on either side of
a typical stress plane, to pull apart. Contrast with compressive
Tensile (tension) test
A destructive mechanical test whereby strength and ductility
properties are measured. See tensile strength.
The internal force or forces set up within a body, which cause or tend
to cause, extension or stretching.
A sample of a casting or steel used for checking the properties of
that casting or steel.
Structure of a surface as it affects appearance or feel.
The female of a complete die
A complete tool used in a press
for any operation or series of operations such as forming,
and cutting. The upper member or members are attached to the slide
(or slides) of the press and the lower member is clamped or bolted to
the bed or bolster with the die
members being so shaped as to cut or form the material placed between
them when the press makes a stroke. The female part of a complete die
assembly as described in the previous sentence.
A group of welding processes in which fusion is produced by heating with superheated liquid metal and slag resulting from a chemical reaction between a metal oxide and aluminum, with or without the application of pressure. Filler metal, when used, is obtained from the liquid metal.
Thickness gage or feeler stock
A hardened and tempered, edged, ground, and polished thin section,
high carbon strip steel.
Usually in thicknesses from .001" to .050" manufactured to
extremely close tolerances. It is used primarily for determining measurement
of openings by tool and die
makers, machinists, and automobile technicians. It is prepared in handy
pocket size knife-like holders containing an assembly of various thicknesses.
Also prepared in standard 12" lengths with rounded ends in 10'
and 25' coils. Universally
used in the metal industry.
Thickness strain analysis (TSA)
The ultimate strength of a material, measured in pounds per square
inch in tension on the original cross section tested, which, if exceeded,
causes sectional deformation
leading to ultimate rupture.
Gauge or depth of material.
A term used to show the action at the bottom of the press
stroke to produce form in the opposite direction of the upper press
ram. Usually, done in a triple-action
Thread rolling tap
Tool to generate internal threads by displacing and flowing metal into
a thread shape.
The bending of a piece
of metal or a structural member in which the object is placed across
two supports and force is applied between and in opposition to them.
See V-bend die.
The open space in a gap-frame press
behind the slide center
The distance from the centerline of the crankshaft or main shaft to
the centerline of the crankpin or eccentric in crank or eccentric presses.
Equal to one half of the stroke. See also crank
press and eccentric
Device consisting of a steel rod, threaded at both ends for nuts, for
tying sections of dies together either by design or to repair a die
which has been broken. Steel rods, threaded at both ends for nuts, used
to hold the bed, uprights, and crown of a press
together under a predetermined compressive load.
See micro ties.
TIG weld (Tungsten Inert Gas)
TIG is short for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW). In the TIG welding
process, an arc is formed between a non-consumable tungsten electrode
and the metal being welded. Gas is fed through the torch to shield the
electrode and molten weld pool. TIG is most commonly used in high quality,
high precision, welding applications.
Steel that is coated with commercially pure tin.
A crack in the base metal occurring at the toe of the weld.
Toe of the weld
The junction between the face of the weld and the base metal.
Toggle draw die
Toggle drawing press
A press in which the
outer or blank holder
slide is actuated by a series of toggle joints and the inner slide
by the crankshaft or eccentrics.
press in which a slide
or slides are actuated by one or more toggle joints. A term applied
to double- and triple-action presses.
The range of variation permitted in maintaining a specific dimension
or specification for any characteristic of the product.
The permissible deviation from the desired value.
A tangible instrumentality having a surface portion which is designed
and intended to engage or react against work with sufficient force to
effect an operation of the class type. A core, mandrel, anvil, or the
like, which may be "passive" in the sense of supplying only
reaction force is included in this definition. The tool may be either
transitory or enduring. It may be destroyed in a single use.
Tool (mandrel, chuck)
The mold from which the part is made.
Units: number; or kg (SI), lb (Imperial); or m (SI), ft (Imperial).
The tool life is a measure of the output which is possible before the
tooling must be replaced. For batch processes it is measured in number
of units, or in total mass of product; for continuous processes it is
measured in total mass or length. When the production run exceeds the
tool life, tooling must be replaced and the cost adjusted.
Tool order number
See project number.
Any high carbon or alloy steel capable of being suitable tempered for
use in the manufacture of tools.
Units: Currency (UK£, US$ etc.). The tooling cost is the cost
of the tooling (that is, molds,
die, jigs and fixtures)
which are totally dedicated to the production of a single product. This
cost must be pro-rated over the number of products produced in the production
run. Processes with high tooling costs have high economic batch-sizes.
Openings provided in parts far location purposes during production.
A brazing process in which bonding is produced by heating with a gas flame and by using a nonferrous filler metal having a melting point above 800° F (427° C), but below that of the base metal. The filler metal is distributed in the joint of capillary attraction.
A twisting deformation
of a solid or tubular body about an axis in which lines that were initially
parallel to the axis become helices.
The shear stress on a transverse cross section resulting from a twisting
The comparison between the original and final thickness converted to
strain readings and plotted on thickness strain diagrams.
Total indicator reading (T.I.R.)
Absolute sum of all dimensional variance.
Variation of a progressive
die where the part is transferred from station to station by a mechanical
system. Mainly used where the part has to be free from the strip
to allow operations to be performed in a free state.
Apparatus used to move a part between die
A pin used in-conjunction with a die cushion to transfer pressure from
the cushion to the bottom of a die pad. Also called cushion pins and
air pins. See pressure
A press having an integral
mechanism for transfer and control of the workpiece.
Outermost edge, which defines the perimeter of the part.
The term applied to the operation of cutting scrap
off a partially or fully shaped part to an established trim line.
A press having three
moving slides, two slides
moving in the same direction and a third lower slide moving upward through
the fixed bed in a direction
opposite to the blank
holder and inner slides. This permits reverse-drawing,
forming, or beading
operations while both upper actions are dwelling.
Cleaning articles by rotating them in a cylinder with cleaning materials.
A handling device which screws into a die
or die section for handling or turning over. Usually referring to a
J-hook, but also called
a die hook or handling hook. Also see turnover
A device to turn over a part between production operations. Sometimes
called a turnover.
Rotary tool holding device in CNC punch presses.
Automatic punch press
indexing the material and selecting the intended tool out of the rotary
tool holding device (turret) totally by computer control for piercing,
blanking and forming
workpieces as programmed.
The rotation of two opposing edges of material in opposite directions.
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