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Home > Metal Forming and Welding Glossary > B

Metal forming and welding glossary - B

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Back gauge

Stop located in the rear of a metal forming or fabricating machine which is used to position the workpiece during an operation.

Back hand welding

A welding technique in which the flame is directed towards the completed weld.


Clearance obtained by removing metal either behind or beyond the cutting edge of a punch or die. Same as relief.


Keys or spacer plates mounted behind a die detail to reinforce that detail.

Balancing pins

Pins used in conjunction with pressure pins to distribute and balance the load on a die cushion.

Banding, metallic or non-metallic

Strong, lightweight ribbons, generally of steel or nylon, applied under tension to strap packages on a pallet.

Bar coding

Machine readable alphabetic and/or numeric information used for identification of packaged parts.

Barber shop

An area, a separate part of a production facility, usually designated just for barbering of dies.


Rough grinding, by hand, of excess stock in a die.

Bare spot

A location on the strip where coating did not hold.


An older term used to describe the decarburized skin that develops on steel bars heated in a non-protective atmosphere.

Barrel tumbling

Process in which parts to be deburred are put together with abrasive material into a many-sided barrel and slowly rotated for prolonged periods for the purpose of burr removal.


Base box

Unit of area of 112 sheets of tin mill products (tin plate, tin free steel or black plate) 14 by 20 inches, or 31,360 square inches. Tin Plate is sold, and carried in finished inventory, on a weight per unit area basis rather than on a thickness basis.

Base metal

The metal to be welded or cut. In alloys, it is the metal present in the largest proportion.

Base metal contamination

Contamination caused by dirt or other impurities in the steel strip.

Base weight

Base weight is a Tin Mill term meaning the thickness divided by .00011. It is also the weight in pounds of one base box of tin plate. In finished inventory, base weight is specified instead of decimal thickness.

Batch anneal

The process by which a large, stationary stack of steel coils (typically 4 coils high) is subjected to a long heat-treating cycle. This process enables the cold-rolled sheet to fully recrystallize into the softest possible product conforming to customer specifications. See anneal.


The stationary platen of a press to which the lower die assembly is attached or the stationary part of the shear frame that supports the material being sheared and the fixed blade. Also, a narrow ridge in a sheet metal workpiece or part, commonly formed for reinforcement.

Beaded flange

A flange reinforced by a low ridge, used mostly around a hole.


Bottom transverse structural member on a metal forming machine.


The angular condition on the working surface of a trim or form steel caused by excessive wear.

Belt sanding

Metal removing process in which an abrasive impregnated endless cloth belt does the cutting.


Bend angle

The angle through which a bending operation is performed, that is, the supplementary angle to that formed by the two bend tangent lines or planes.

Bend radius

The inside radius of a bent section or a formed feature.

Bend relief

The clearance notch at an end of a flange to allow bending without distorting or tearing adjacent material.


It is defined as the minimum bending radius (shown as Ri, inner radius) attainable by a given material.


A term typically applied to a metal forming process. It is the creation of a formed feature by angular displacement of a sheet metal workpiece. The straining of material, usually flat sheet or strip metal, by moving it around a straight axis lying in the neutral plane. Metal flow takes place within the plastic range of the metal, so that the bent part retains a permanent set after removal of the applied stress. The cross section of the bend inward from the neutral plane is in compression; the rest of the bend is in tension. See bending stress, forming, and drawing.

Bending brake or press brake

A form of open-frame single-action press that is comparatively wide between the housings, with a bed designed for holding long, narrow forming edges or dies. Used for bending and forming strip, plate, and sheet (into boxes, panels, roof decks, and so on).

Bending dies

Dies used in presses for bending sheet metal or wire parts into various shapes. The work is done by the punch pushing the stock into cavities or depressions of similar shape in the die or by auxiliary attachments operated by the descending punch.

Bending rolls

Various types of machinery equipped with two or more rolls to form curved sheet and sections.

Bending stress

A stress involving tensile and compressive forces, which are not uniformly distributed. Its maximum value depends on the amount of flexure that a given application can accommodate. Resistance to bending can be termed stiffness.



The upper and lower holding surfaces which control metal flow around a shape to be formed in a draw operation. Also see blank holder and draw ring.

Binder force

The force applied to the perimeter of a sheet during a deep drawing operation to suppress wrinkling and control metal flow. See blank holder force.

Binder ring

That part of a forming die that holds the blank by pressure against a mating surface of the die to control metal flow and prevent wrinkling. A blank holder is also called binder, binder ring, or ring. See blank holder.


Refers to surfaces that meet at an angle in different planes.


A local inboard condition on a panel which is usually in a high stress area. See low spot.

Black plate

Any steel that has not been coated. Typically, black plate has gone through Tandem mill (cold-rolled). This term also defines a product, an uncoated material in tin plate gauges. 128 lb. (.0141 inch) and lighter tin mill product that has not received any additional metallic coating during production. A low carbon cold reduced steel intended for use in the uncoated state or for coating with tin and chromium.

Black plate tin

A light-gauge cold-rolled non-coated steel, it is the basic tin mill product from which all other tin mill products are made.

Blade steel

A long narrow trim steel quite often mounted from the side. Also see details.


In forming, a piece of sheet metal stock from which a product is made. Material, produced in cutting dies, that is usually subjected to further press operations. A workpiece that results from a blanking operation. A pre-cut metal shape for a subsequent press operation.

Blank development

The technique of determining the size and shape of a blank. The resultant flat pattern.

Blank holder

As a double action of forming or drawing operation takes place, the blank holder restrains the metal on its movement. During drawing operations, if the force is sufficient, the metal wrinkles. If the force is excessive, the metal tears. The part of a draw die which holds the workpiece against the draw ring to control metal flow. A blank holder is also called binder, binder ring, or ring. That part of a forming die, which holds the blank by pressure against a mating surface of the die to control metal flow and prevent wrinkling. The blank holder is sometimes referred to as hold down or binder area. Pressure applied by mechanical means, springs, air, or fluid cushions.

Blank holder force (BHF)

The force applied to the perimeter of a sheet during a deep drawing operation to suppress wrinkling and control metal flow.

Blank holder pressure (BHP)

The pressure pattern on the blank that results from applying a blank holder force. The pressure exerted by the blank holder against the blank. This pressure is normally adjustable to control metal flow during the drawing.

Blank sheet

The flat stamping produced in a stamping die. The use of a blank to describe a stamping usually implies the need for subsequent drawing.


The operation of punching, cutting, or shearing a piece out of stock to a predetermined shape. Die cutting of the outside shape of a part.

Blanking process - illustration



A coating defect consisting of the movement of an ingredient to the surface of a coating, or a movement, which stains in an adjoining area. The term blooming is also a form of bleeding, but it is normally used when describing lubricants rather than pigments.


Leaching of entrapped plating solutions, causing surface discoloration and corrosion.

Blind end fastener

Internally threaded fastener which is manufactured with one end closed such that, when installed, it forms a gas and moisture resistant seal.

Blind fastener

Fastener which is capable of being permanently installed and used in a workpiece with access from only one side.

Blind rivet

Rivet which is capable of being installed and used in a workpiece or assembly with access from only one side.


Another coating defect consisting of the adhesion of two adjoining coatings or materials. Usually this term refers to the coating on one side of coated plate being tacky or sticky and adhering to the adjacent sheet.

Blue tempered spring steel strips

See tempered spring steel strip.


Subjecting the scale-free surface of a ferrous alloy to the action of air, steam, or other agents at a suitable temperature, thus forming a thin blue film of oxide and improving the appearance and resistance to corrosion. This term is ordinarily applied to sheet, strip, or finished parts. It is used also to denote the heating of springs after fabrication in order to improve their properties.



A bulge outside of the finish form area on a draw punch or cavity to take up loose metal or to help control the draw process. Also known as kidney.

Bolster plate

That plate to which dies can be fastened so the assembly is secured to the top surface of a press bed.


The junction of the welding metal and the base metal.


See adapter. A raised portion of a casting, die, or part such as bosses for tie slots on die shoes.


Forming operation in which the punch and the die are closed completely on the workpiece.

Bottoming bending

Press-brake bending process in which the upper die (punch) enters the lower die and coins or sets the material to eliminate springback.

Bottoming blocks

Adjustable blocks mounted under a pad to determine the proper height of the pad when the die is closed. Also see stop blocks.

Bottoming stamp

A stamp or weld mark that is used in a form die to indicate that the die is on the bottom. Usually positioned in a scrap area of the part.

Bottoming the die

Adjusting press ram/slide so die is on bottom or on the stop blocks at the bottom of the press stroke. This is also called "homing" the die.


See camber.

Bow distortion

Out of flatness condition in sheet material commonly known as oil canning in which, with the edges of the sheet restrained, the center of the sheet can be popped back and forth but cannot be flattened without specialized equipment. This condition is sometimes inherent in the material as received from the supplier and sometimes the result of multiple punching or forming operations.

Box cam

A precision made box containing cam slide and driver.

Box heels

See heel block.


Brake press pending or brake press bending

An operation that produces various degree bends when fabricating parts from steel.

Braze welding

A method of welding by using a filler metal that liquefies above 450 °C (842 °F) and below the solid state of the base metals. Unlike brazing, in braze welding, the filler metal is not distributed in the joint by capillary action.


A group of welding processes in which a groove, fillet, lap, or flange joint is bonded by using a nonferrous filler metal having a melting point above 800 °F (427 °C), but below that of the base metals. Then, the filler metal will be distributed throughout the joint using capillary attraction.


The space, per side, between the punch and die on a trim or pierce die. Also called clearance or die clearance.


See breakout.


Fractured portion of the cross section of a cut edge of stock. A condition naturally occurring during shearing, blanking, punching and other cutting operations.


The non-desired action of a die member moving away from the force applied.

Bridle unit

A three-roll cluster used to control line tension at strategic locations on the line.


See micro ties.

Bright commercial finish

See finishes.

Brinnell hardness testing

A method of testing the hardness of material. This test is usually used on softer materials and castings in which a carbide ball is pressed into the material for a given period of time and then removed. The impression that results is measured for the width along with a value determines hardness of the material.


A tendency to fracture without appreciable deformation.

Brushing or Etching

Mechanical or chemical cleaning of parts before further processing.

Bubble die

A pre-draw die to gain material in the areas of a deep draw to help prevent the fracture of the metal in these areas.


An uncontrolled deformation pattern perpendicular to the surface of a sheet caused by compressive stresses. Buckling in the flange of the part is referred to as wrinkling, and buckling in the wall of the part is referred to as puckering. A bulge, bend, kink, or other wavy condition of the workpiece caused by compressive stresses.


Polishing method employing soft cloth to carry very fine polishing compounds.

Build up coil

A coil that is made by joining two or more coils to make one max coil or one shippable coil.


The process of increasing the diameter of a cylindrical shell (usually to a spherical shape) or of expanding the outer walls of any shell or box shape whose walls were previously straight.

Bumper-actuated die

See free-shoe die.


Burn mark

Heat discoloration created in the contact area of a welding electrode.


Smooth or shiny area above the breakout on a sheared edge. Also called shear or cut band.


A thin ridge, raised sharp edge, or roughness left on forgings or sheet metal blanks by cutting operations such as slitting, shearing, trimming, punching, blanking, or sawing.

Burr direction

Side of the stock on which burrs appear.

Burr height

Height to which burr is raised beyond the surface of the material.

Burr rollover

Condition of burr displacement resulting from mechanical deburring operation.


Edge without sharp protrusions.


A common term for debarring or smoothing the rough cut edges of metal.

Bus bar copper

Copper with minor alloying constituents and high conductivity used for electrical applications.


Place material, or material placed, end to end.

Butt joint

A joint between two workpieces in such a manner that the weld joining the parts is between the surface planes of both of the pieces joined.

Butt weld

A weld in a butt joint.


A small cylindrical die steel with an opening larger than the punch point size, generally by a percentage of the thickness of the material being pierced. Also called die button or pierce button.

By coil

This is a selling term that refers to product sold in the form of a coil vs. cut plate. "Bi Coil" is also used in production to refer to coils vs. cut plate.


A generic term referring to the amount that one steel passes over or thru another steel.


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Advantage Fabricated Metals
A Division of Corrugated Metals, Inc.

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