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Home > Metal Forming and Welding Glossary > E

Metal forming and welding glossary - E

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The formation of ears or scalloped edges around the top of a drawn shell, resulting from directional differences in the plastic-working properties of rolled metal with, across, and at angles to the direction of rolling.

Eberly screw

A socket head cap screw with the head and the upper portion of the body turned down, leaving a minimum number of threads on the end of the body. Used where the screw hole in the detail does not align with the threaded hole in the mounting surface. Same definition as for Chicago screws or Kelly screws.


The offset portion of the driveshaft that governs the stroke or distance the crosshead moves on a mechanical or manual shear.

Eccentric press

A mechanical press in which an eccentric, instead of a crankshaft, is used to move the slide.


A transition between surfaces.

Edge bulge

Condition resulting from any forming, piercing, hardware insertion or spot welding operation too close to an edge.

Edge deckle (mill edge

Waviness of an unslit coil edge, as received from the material supplier.

Edge pucker

Material extrusion beyond an outside edge through metalforming.

Edger (edging impression)

The portion of a die impression that distributes metal during forging into areas where it is most needed in order to facilitate filling the cavities of subsequent impressions to be used in the forging sequence.


A dimension between the edge of the part and a feature.


The dressing of metal strip edges by rolling, filing or drawing.

Effective draw

The maximum limits of forming depth that can be achieved with a multiple action press that is sometimes called maximum draw or maximum depth of draw.


The removal of a part from a die by an air blast or mechanical means.


A mechanism for removing a part from a die. Also called kicker or knockout.

Ejector rod

A rod used to push out a formed piece.

Elastic deformation

Stretching of the material below the point at which a permanent set takes place. That is, in the range where the metal acts spring-like or elastic.

Elastic instabilities

A section of a part that has two equilibrium positions and can be manually switched between each position. Elastic instabilities are created when a highly deformed area is constrained on all sides by regions of less deformed areas. Elastic instabilities are also referred to as oil canning.

Elastic limit

The maximum stress a material can sustain without any permanent strain (deformation) remaining upon complete release of the stress. See also proportional limit.


The property of a material by which the deformation caused by stress disappears upon removal of the stress. A perfectly elastic body completely recovers its original shape and dimensions after the release of stress.



A consumable used in the welding process. The electrode carries the current between the electrode holder and the base material. In metal arc welding it is usually a consumable electrode which also supplies filler material for the weld. Depending on the type of welding, there are a numbe of types of electrodes such as:

a. Metal-Arc. Filler metal in the form of a wire or rod, whether bare or covered, through which current is conducted between the electrode holder and the arc.
b. Carbon-Arc. A carbon or graphite rod through which current is conducted between the electrode holder and the arc.
c. Atomic. One of the two tungsten rods between the points of which the arc is maintained.
d. Electrolytic Oxygen-Hydrogen Generation. The conductors by which current enters and leaves the water, which is decomposed by the passage of the current.
e. Resistance Welding. The part or parts of a resistance welding machine through which the welding current and the pressure are applied directly to the work.

Electrolytic galvanized

Cold rolled or black plate to which a coating of zinc is applied by electro-deposition and typically used for applications in which corrosion resistance and paintability is a primary concern.

Electrolytic tin coated sheets (ETCS)

Cold rolled sheet coated with tin by electrodeposition through an acid or alkaline

Electromagnetic forming

A process for forming metal by the direct application of an intense, transient magnetic field. The workplace is formed without mechanical contact by the passage of a pulse of electric cur-rent through a forming coil. Also known as magnetic pulse forming.

Electron beam welding (EBW)

Melting and fusing of metals by use of a collimated stream of electrons traveling at close to the speed of light. The kinetic energy from the electrons converts to heat on impact.

Elephant ears

Cast or welded projections in the shape of an ear on the outboard section of a die. They are used for handling the die with chains.


The amount of permanent extension of the material before it fractures. Elongation takes place in the part during forming or drawing operations. See also elongation percent.

Elongation, percent

The extension of a uniform section of a specimen expressed as a percentage of the original gage length: Elongation percent (%) = (Lx - Lo) / Lo x 100. Where Lo is the original gage length and, Lx is the final gage length.


A relatively shallow indentation or raised design with basically no change in metal thickness.


A process for producing raised or sunken designs or relief in sheet material by means of male and female dies, theoretically with no change in metal thickness or by passing sheet or a strip of metal by passing between rolls of desired pattern. (See patterned or embossed sheet). Examples are letters, ornamental pictures, and ribs for stiffening. Heavy embossing and coining are similar operations.

Embossing die

A die used for producing embossed designs.

Enclosed scam and pocket

Formed, spot welded or welded area that can entrap plating solutions.

End flare

Seen after cut off, caused by the release of residual forming stresses in material being roll formed. where one longitudinal end springs open and the other springs closed.

Environmental testing

Testing of a product or finish for resistance to attack by specific elements.

Equalizer pins

A pin used in conjunction with pressure pins to distribute and balance the load on a die cushion.These are also called balancing pins.

Erichsen test

A cupping test used to assess the ductility of sheet metal. The method consists of forcing a conical or hemispherical-ended plunger into the specimen and measuring the depth of the impression at fracture.

Explosive forming

The shaping of metal parts in which the forming pressure is generated by an explosive charge. See also high-energy-rate forming.


A mechanism attached to a press for removing a part from a die. Also called an iron hand.

Extruded hole

Pierced and formed hole in sheet metal in which the metal has been stretched creating a tubular shape.


The turning up or drawing out of a flange around a hole which has been punched in a previous operation. Also called hole flanging. The punching and flanging of a hole in one operation generating a slug. The cutting or tearing (piercing) and flanging of a hole in one operation without generating a slug.Also called spearing or spear punching.


A metal forming process which a punch compresses a billet (hot or cold) confined in a container so that the billet material flows through a die in the same direction as the punch.

Eye bands

Metal bands wrapped through the center or eye of the coil to prevent it from uncoiling and to hold strip mults together.


A coating defect, similar to cratering, but with exposed metal in the void.


The displacing of material about an opening in sheet or plate so that a lip protruding above the surface is formed.


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