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Metal forming and welding glossary - F
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A number of metalworking techniques that allow a part to be assembled
from smaller components. Welding, adhesive bonding and fastening by
the use of bolts and rivets are the most widely used examples.
Face of the weld
The exposed surface of the weld, made by an arc or gas welding process, on the side from which welding was done.
A factor is a rib-like projection on a draw
ring or blank
holder for controlling metal flow. It is also called a spleen or
A sharp reduction in gauge, metal thinning, on a band edge caused by
grooves worn in rolls due to extensive rolling
of the same width material that create a knife edge appearance.
This is done for coating
control on edge.
Dimension between two features on a part.
A screw adjusted device used to set the feed length on a slide
An integral part of the slide
forming machine, eccentric-driven and cam
controlled, that advances either wire or strip
in accurate increments.
A mold duplicating the exterior dimensions of the part.
Referring to iron content.
Various alloys that exhibit magnetic qualities.
Metals containing iron as a major alloying constituent.
See filler cam.
A dwell type cam slide
that generally fits the part shape and retracts to permit loading and
unloading of the part. Also called fill slide.
The metal to be added in making a weld.
The concave intersection of two surfaces.
Joining method of filling an inside edge with welding metal.
Final hem contact path
Angle between a line (formed by a point on the final hem
steel at first contact with flange
to the same point at end of final hem) and the mating surface.
Final hem dwell
Duration of time which the final hem
steel stay at final hem
Final hem face geometry
Angle of the final hem steels measured relative to the mating flange
Final hem force
Maximum force required to bend flange from pre hem position to final
Final hem springback
Elastic recovery that follows plastic
deformation when the final hem load is removed.
Final hem steel
Hardened steels mounted to the hemmer to bend the flange
from pre-hem angle to final hem.
The surface appearance of a product. The forging
operation in which the part is forged into its final shape in the finish
die. If only one finish operation is scheduled to be performed in the
finish die, this operation will be identified simply as finish; first,
second, or third finish designations are so termed when one or more
finish operations are to be performed in the same finish die.
The act of forming a panel shape to the finish
position. Also see restrike.
The texture of the steel surface which is determined by the grit on
the rolls or by the grind on the rolls in the case of bright finish.
Finite element method (FEM)
A method of analysis developed for prediction, practical forming
of the instantaneous velocities, strain rates, strains, stresses and
temperatures within the deforming metal.
An irregular pattern of lines on the surface of a sheet
caused by rolling with
a fire cracked roll. Fire cracks will develop when a roll is not properly
A coating defect consisting
of undissolved particles in the coating usually surrounded by a circular
crater. The particles are usually resinous and are raised up from
the cured surface with the appearance of the eye of a fish.
Degree of physical match between two or more components.
Tooling designed to locate and hold components in position.
A projecting rim or edge of a part, usually narrow and of approximately
constant width for stiffening or fastening.
Die used to form a flange
from a blank.
Flange inside breakline radius
Inside of metal radius of the upturned flange
of the outer panel formed by the flanging process
over the flange die corner radius.
Flange inside of metal breakline
Midpoint of the inside of metal breakline radius.
Flange outside breakline radius
Outside of metal radius of the upturned flange
of the outer panel formed by the flanging process.
It is equivalent to the sum of the inside breakline radius and the sheet
Flange outside of metal breakline
Midpoint of the outside of metal breakline radius.
Flange material that has been cut to allow flange
to lay flat after final hem.
A steel used in a forming operation in which a narrow strip
at the edge of a sheet
or part is bent down along a straight or curved line. Also called a
A stripper that pushes against the bottom edge or surface of a flange
to release the part from the stool.
A variable that is intentionally changed in a controlled manner during
an experiment to observe its effects on the response variable, sometimes
called an independent variable or causal variable.
Elastic recovery that follows plastic
deformation when the flanging load is removed.
The excess metal attached to a part after a forming
operation. Also, the excess material that squeezes out between the joint
lines of mold dies.
A resistance welding process in which fusion is produced, simultaneously over the entire area of abutting surfaces, by the heat obtained from resistance to the flow of current between two surfaces and by the application of pressure after heating is substantially completed. Flashing is accompanied by expulsion of metal from the joint.
Flat (or matte)
Coating surface which
displays no gloss when observed at any angle. A perfectly diffused reflecting
Flat latch needle galling
The damaging of one or both metallic surfaces by removal of particles
from localized areas due to seizure curing sliding friction.
A two-dimensional development that represents the part before it is
formed into a three dimensional shape.
The position in which welding is performed from the upper side of the joint and the face of the weld is approximately horizontal.
Flat rolled steel
Steel produced on rolling
mills utilizing relatively smooth, cylindrical rolls. The width
to thickness ratio of flat rolled products is usually fairly large.
Examples of flat rolled steel products are hot-rolled, cold-rolled,
and coated sheets and
coils, plus tin mill products.
Flat surface contour
Curvature with no radius.
The absence of any gap or clearance when a strip
is placed, without applying any pressure, between two parallel-faced
A flange that is folded back over upon itself.
It is used primarily for appearance and removal of dangerous sheared
edges. Also called closed hem.
Dies used to flatten sheet
metal hems; that is, dies
that can flatten a bend by closing it. These dies consist of a top and
bottom die with a flat
surface that can close one section (flange) to
another (hem, seam).
A movable roll designed to push up against a sheet
as it passes through a roller leveler. The flex roll can be adjusted
to deflect the sheet any amount up to the roll diameter.
Passing sheets through
a flex roll unit to minimize yield-point elongation
in order to reduce the tendency for stretcher
strains to appear during forming.
A die mounted in a die
holder or a punch
mounted in its holder such that a slight amount of motion compensates
for tolerance in
the die parts, the work, or the press.
A die mounted on heavy springs to allow vertical motion in some trimming,
shearing, and forming
Hardware which allows the threaded portion to move within its particular
confines without rotating, to compensate for misalignment.
Floating form punch
A draw die punch
that is supported by air cylinders or other means instead of being tied
to the inner press ram.
This allows adjustment for the amount of preform desired and helps to
eliminate binding between the punch and the die.
Texture showing the direction of metal flow during hot or cold working.
Flow lines can often be revealed by etching the surface or a section
of a metal part.
A drawing which superimposes the cross section contour of a roll
formed part at each roll station, starting with the flat incoming
material and ending with the desired profile. It depicts the anticipated
flow of material in the forming process.
A modification of the Guerin process, fluid forming
differs from the fluid-cell process in that the die cavity, called a
pressure dome, is not completely filled with rubber, but with hydraulic
fluid retained by a cup-shaped rubber diaphragm. See also rubber-pad
A modification of the Guerin process for forming sheet metal, the fluid-cell
process uses higher pressure and is primarily designed for forming slightly
deeper parts, using a rubber pad as either the die
or punch. A flexible
hydraulic fluid cell forces an auxiliary rubber pad to follow the contour
of the form block and exert a nearly uniform pressure at all points
on the workpiece.
See also fluid forming and rubber-pad
Series of rounded parallel grooves that shows on the surface of metals.
A cam attached to the
upper half of the die with
a driver on the bottom half of the die. Also called an aerial
cam, dog leg cam, or walking cam.
Flying die cutoff
The system used in roll
forming to cut the formed shape to length in a continuous operation.
Similar in action to a punch
press, but designed to allow the die
to move in line with the roll formed shape during the cutoff cycle,
and to make a cut on the fly based on a signal from a trigger mechanism.
Flying cut-off device
A cutting die, saw, or wheel that cuts work to length while it is moving.
A machine for cutting continuous rolled products to length that does
not require a halt in rolling,
but rather moves along the runout table at the same speed as the product
while performing the cutting, and then returns to the starting point
in time to cut the next piece.
Metal in sheet form
that is less than 0.15 mm (0.006 in.) thick.
Defects caused in metal by continued fabrication of overlapping surfaces.
die consisting of two or more parts in a single holder; used with
a separate lower die to
perform more than one operation (such as piercing
and blanking) on a
part in two or more stations.
Follower block (tail block)
This serves to clamp the workpiece
to the tool.
A gas welding technique in which the flare is directed against the base metal ahead of the completed weld.
A bend, or the process of bending a metal formed part.
Tooling, usually the male part, used for forming sheet
metal contours. Form blocks are generally used in rubber-pad
A die used to change the
shape of a sheet metal
blank with minimal plastic
A cam-operated motion
used for lifting the mandrel
or forming in an opposite plane.
The ease with which a metal can be shaped through plastic
deformation. Evaluation of the formability of a metal involves measurement
of strength, ductility,
and the amount of deformation
required to cause fracture. The term workability is used interchangeably
with formability; however, formability refers to the shaping of sheet
metal, while workability refers to shaping materials by bulk forming.
A material, metal for this purpose, that has undergone plastic
deformation between tools (dies) to obtain the final configuration.
Small flange bent at an angle from the body of
a metal workpiece.
deformation of a billet or a blanked sheet
between tools (dies) to obtain the final configuration. Metalforming
processes are typically classified as bulk forming
and sheet forming.
Also referred to as metalworking. Making any change in the shape
of a metal piece which does not intentionally reduce the metal thickness
and which produces a useful shape.
A die in which the shape of the punch
and die is directly reproduced
in the metal with little or no metal flow.
Forming limit diagram (FLD)
A bending operation
in which a narrow strip
at the edge of a sheet
is bent up or down along a straight or curved line. It is used for edge
strengthening, appearance, rigidity and the removal of sheared edges.
A flange is often used as a fastening surface.
Cam operated units used to drive tools on a slide
A slide mounted tool
used for bending on
a slide forming
Dimension between two forms on a part.
Footage of coil
The length of the steel strip
that makes up a coil.
A machine, either horizontal or vertical, used to fabricate formed
metal stampings and wire forms, by the action of four forming
slides acting upon a stationary mandrel
or center tool.
The surface appearance of metals when they are broken.
A die constructed so the
upper shoe is linked to the lower shoe and not secured in any way to
the press ram. Used
for blanking or secondary
cutting operations. Also called bumper-actuated die.
French cut/French notch
A notch usually cut on one side of a stock strip
in a progressive
die to control stock width and progression of the stock. See pitch
Friction gouges or scratches
A series of relatively short surface scratches variable in form and
severity. See galling.
A device driven by a cam
that is mounted on the front shaft on a slide
forming machine used to severe the blank
from the strip before
The degree to which the designed part will perform to meet its intended
Fuse welded joint
Welding method without addition of a filler metal that is used to generate
little, if any, eruption above the original surface level.
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