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Home > Metal Forming and Welding Glossary > G

Metal forming and welding glossary - G

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The thickness of sheet or the diameter of wire. The various standards are arbitrary and differ with regard to ferrous and non-ferrous products as well as sheet and wire. An aid for visual inspection that enables an inspector to determine more reliably whether the size or contour of a formed part meets dimensional requirements. The ability of a material to under go plastic deformation without fracture. A device used to position work in a die accurately. Another name for a checking fixture which is used to check parts. See gauge.

Gage pin

A round gage normally used to position work from the edge of the part.


A galvanized product coated with 95% free zinc, 5% aluminum and traces of mish metal in the coating; provides extra corrosion protection with lighter coating weight; has improved formability over regular free zinc coatings (hot dipped galvanized regular products).


The damaging of one or both metallic surfaces by removal of particles from localized areas due to seizure curing sliding friction. See also scoring.

Galvaneal coating

Coatings on hot-dipped galvanized steels processed to convert the coating completely to zinc-iron alloys. They are dull gray in appearance, have no spangle, and after proper preparation, are well suited for painting.

Galvanize coatings (G)

Free zinc coatings applied to a hot rolled or cold rolled steel to produce Galvanized steel. The coating can be applied by the hot-dip or electrodeposition process.


An extra tight coat of galvanizing metal (zinc) applied to a soft steel sheet, after which the sheet is passed through an oven at about 1200°F. The resulting coat is dull gray without spangle that is especially suited for subsequent painting.


A series of dies mounted on a die plate.


See nesting.

Gap-frame press

A general classification of press in which the uprights or housings are made in the form of a letter C, making three sides of the die space accessible. See C-frame press.

Gas cylinder

A gas charged cylinder used in place of springs or die cushions in applications in which high initial pressure is required. Also called nitrogen die cylinder, nitro-dyne cylinder, and hyson cylinder.

Gas metal arc welding (GMAW)

Sometimes referred to by its subtypes metal inert gas (MIG) welding or metal active gas (MAG) welding, is a semi-automatic or automatic arc welding process in which a continuous and consumable wire electrode and a shielding gas are fed through a welding gun. A constant voltage, direct current power source is most commonly used with GMAW, but constant current systems, as well as alternating current, can be used. See MIG weld.

Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW)

Also known as tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding, is an arc welding process that uses a nonconsumable tungsten electrode to produce the weld. The weld area is protected from atmospheric contamination by a shielding gas (usually an inert gas such as argon), and a filler metal is normally used, though some welds, known as autogenous welds, do not require it. A constant-current welding power supply produces energy which is conducted across the arc through a column of highly ionized gas and metal vapors known as a plasma.

Gas welding

Melting and fusing metals together by use of an oxygen and flammable gas mixture.


Instrument for measuring, testing, or registering. Numeric scale for metal thickness. See gage.

Gauge tolerance

A range by which a product’s gauge can deviate from those ordered and still meet the order’s requirements.


Guides or shoes that ensure the proper parallelism, squareness, and sliding fit between press components such as the slide and the frame. They are usually adjustable to compensate for wear and to establish operating clearance.


Go/No-Go Gauge

Measuring device with two registration elements which determine if a feature to be measured is between two established limits.


A device with colored lenses which protect the eyes from harmful radiation during welding and cutting operations.


Surface imperfection, deeper than a scratch, often with raised edges.


Refers to grain fiber following the direction of rolling and parallel to edges of metal strip or metal sheets. In steel, the ductility in the direction of rolling is almost twice that at right angles to the direction of rolling.

Grain direction

Crystalline orientation of material in the direction of mill rolling. Orientation of a surface finish generated by abrasive method.

Grain size

The average diameter of grains in the metal under consideration, or alternatively, the number of grains per unit area. Grain size is a significant issue since an increase in grain size is accompanied by lower ductility and impact resistance. The addition of certain metals to steel affects grain size. Vanadium and aluminum tend to give steel a fine grain when added. The ASTM has set up a grain size standard for steels.

Grid analysis

A process used to measure the mechanical properties of a sheet metal part during a forming operation.


Process of removing material by abrasion.


Material clamping devices often serrated for additional holding force to restrain material during a die operation.

Ground flat stock

Annealed and preground (to close tolerances) tool steel flats in standard sizes ready for tool room use. These are three common grades; water hardening, oil hardening and air hardening quality.

Growing (grow)

The outward change in outer panel size that occurs during the hemming process.

Guerin process

A rubber-pad forming process for forming sheet metal.

Guide pin

Pin or post usually fixed in the lower shoe and accurately fitted to bushings in the upper shoe to insure precise alignment of the two members of a die set. Also called a guide post, rider pin, or leader pin.

Guide pin bushing

A replaceable insert normally in the upper shoe to provide accurate alignment of both upper and lower die shoes. Also called bushing, guide post bushing, or rider pin bushing.

Guide post

See guide pin.

Guide post bushing

See guide pin bushing.


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Advantage Fabricated Metals
A Division of Corrugated Metals, Inc.

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3575 Morreim Drive • Belvidere, Illinois 61008
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