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Home > Metal Forming and Welding Glossary > H

Metal forming and welding glossary - H

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Half-hard temper

Cold rolled steel produced to a Rockwell hardness range of 70 to 85 on the B scale. Product of this temper is intended for limited cold forming and will only withstand 90° bends made across the rolling direction.

Half shearing

A partial penetration piercing, creating a locating button with a height of about 1/2 material thickness.

Hammer steel

See hem steel.

Hand shield

A device used in arc welding to protect the face and neck. It is equipped with a filter glass lens and is designed to be held by hand.

Handling core

Cast cores in upper and lower shoes used for handling purposes.

Handling hook

See turnover.

Handling ring

A device bolted to the side of a mold die for handling of the mold.

Hard tooling

Tooling made for a specific part commonly referred to as dedicated tooling.

Hardened and tempered spring steel strip

A medium or high carbon quality steel strip which has been subjected to the sequence of heating, quenching and tempering.


Any process which increases the hardness of a metal. Usually heating and quenching certain iron base alloys from a temperature either within or above the critical temperature range.


The degree to which a metal will resist cutting, abrasion, penetration, bending and stretching. The indicated hardness of metals will differ somewhat with the specific apparatus measuring hardness. (See Brinnell Hardness, Rockwell Hardness, Vickers Hardness, Scleroscope Hardness). Tensile strength also is an indication of hardness.


Fasteners inserted into a sheet metal part.

Hardware list

Information that should be conveyed to the part supplier specifying part numbers, description and quality of fasteners.


Hartmann lines

Long vein-like marks appearing on the surface of certain metals, in the direction of the maximum shear stress, when the metal is subjected to deformation beyond the yield point. See Luders lines.

Heat affected zone (HAZ)

That portion of the base metal whose structure or properties have been changed by the heat of welding or cutting.

Heat treating

Subjecting metals to heat treatment.

Heat treatment

Heating and cooling a solid metal or alloy in such a way that desired structures, conditions or properties are attained. Heating for the sole purpose of hot working is excluded from the meaning of this term. Heat treatment usually markedly affects strength, hardness, ductility, malleability, and similar properties of both metals and their alloys.

Heavy coating

A condition caused by too much coating being applied to the strip.

Heavy gauge

Product with a thickness above the customer's maximum gauge tolerance.

Heavy/Light gauge

Steel plate that deviates both plus and minus by not meeting customer gauge specifications.

Heel block

A block or plate usually mounted on or attached to a lower die and serving to prevent or minimize deflection of punches or cams. When heel blocks are used with a mating heel post, this assembly can be used alone or in conjunction with guide pins that help align the die to prevent damage when the press ram has too much play.

Heel plate

A wear plate used on the heel block. See also wear plate and heel block.

Heel post

A male member that has either a machined wear surface or wear plates mounted to it that mates with a heel block. It is incorporated in dies to hold the die alignment and absorbs lateral pressures produced within the die.


A device used in arc welding to protect the face and neck. It is equipped with a filter glass and is designed to be worn on the head.

Hem (also called Dutch bend)

Edge of material doubled over onto itself for the purpose of safe handling or to increase edge stiffness.

Hem die

Die used in hemming.

Hem die plus

The amount of stock added to a part in an area to be hemmed to compensate for the amount the part reduces in size along the flange radius when hemmed. Also see creep.

Hem edge roll

When the outer panel rolls up off of the hem die during the hemming process.

Hem flange split

Usually observed in concave edge and concave surface flanging and hemming.

Hem length

The length of the flange after final hemming.

Hem out

Usually observed with wrinkling after flanging or pre-hemming. Severe wrinkles in convex edge hemming may develop hem-out.

Hem steel

The steel in a hem die that finishes and flattens the hem. Also called hammer steel.


A bend of 180° (made in two steps). First, a sharp-angle bend is made and then the bend is closed using a flat punch and a die.

Hemming die

A die which folds the edge of the part back over on itself. The edge may or may not be completely flattened to form a closed hem.


A common abbreviation for high-energy-rate forming.

High collar lock washer

A special type of lock washer that is thicker than standard and smaller in diameter than standard. Designed to fit in a standard counterbored hole for a socket head cap screw.

High-energy-rate forming

A group of forming processes that applies a high rate of strain to the material being formed through the application of high rates of energy transfer. See also explosive forming.

High Rockwell

A condition that occurs when the hardness of the steel is above the maximum limit as specified by the customer. See Rockwell hardness.

Hoist ring

See swivel ring.

Hold down

An object used to secure a workpiece.

Hold-down marks

Slight indentations or scuff marks on one side of the stock which can result from the pressure of hold down devices during shearing operations.

Hold-down plate (pressure pad)

A pressurized plate designed to hold the workpiece down during a press operation. In practice, this plate often serves as a stripper and is also called a stripper plate.


Hole diameter

Units: mm (SI), inch (Imperial) The minimum hole diameter which can be created by the process. Casting, stamping and molding impose limits on minimum hole size which can be overcome by creating the holes with a secondary process such as drilling or laser cutting.

Hole flanging

The forming of an integral collar around the periphery of a previously formed hole in a sheet metal part. See extruding.

Hole rollover

Rounding of the top edge of a pierced feature caused by the ductility of the metal, which flows in the direction of the applied force.


Dimension between the center of a hole and another feature.


Distance from the center line of a hole to the edge of a formed feature.


Dimension between the centers of holes.

Homing the die

Adjusting press ram/slide so die is on bottom or on the stop blocks at the bottom of the press stroke. Also called bottoming the die.


An annealing treatment at a fairly high temperature designed to eliminate or reduce chemical segregation.


A fine grit stone used with a fluid for sharpening or smoothing a surface. Also see superior hone.

Hone bucket

A container which holds cleaning and lubricant fluids for wet hones. Also called minnow bucket.

Hooke's law

A material in which the stress is linearly proportional to strain is said to obey Hooke's law. See also modulus of elasticity.

Horizontal cam

A cam that travels 90° to press stroke. See straight cam.


Lower section of the die on which the part nests. Horns are also called an adapter, boss, die post, locator, master, master plug, and stool. The portion of the die or part that protrudes.

Hot developing

The development of a blank or part during the tryout of the die.

Hot rolled sheets

Manufactured by hot rolling slabs to the required thickness. Steel which was rollerformed from a hot plastic state into final shape and is characterized by a rough, scaly surface.

Hot shear

A term used for a quick fix of a trim steel that should only be done in an emergency situation. It is done by welding the steel and roughing it back close to the original surface. Next the steel is reheated until it becomes molten red and then the press is cycled to get the location of the mating surface. Die clearance must be added after this location is obtained.

Hydraulic press

A machine that exerts working pressure by hydraulic means.

Hydraulic press brake

A press brake in which the ram is actuated directly by hydraulic cylinders.

Hydraulic shear

A shear in which the crosshead is actuated by hydraulic cylinders.

Hydraulic-mechanical press brake

A mechanical press brake that uses hydraulic cylinders attached to mechanical linkages to power the ram through its working stroke.


If energy transfer is in the form of pressurized liquid flow then it is called hydraulics. The oil is kept in a reservoir and the pump draws it in and pushes it into the system. Because the oils can't escape, pressure builds up and the energy stored in the oil is then used to operate machinery, using high pressure hoses, valves and actuators.

Hyson cylinder

See gas cylinder.


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Advantage Fabricated Metals
A Division of Corrugated Metals, Inc.

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