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Home > Metal Forming and Welding Glossary > S

Metal forming and welding glossary - S

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Safety pin

A pin which is used to prevent the movement of an object while working on or near that object. Used on incline cams, iron hands, etc.

Salt spray test

An accelerated corrosion test in which the metal specimens usually coated steel are exposed to a fine mist of salt water solution either continuously or intermittently. Spray is usually 5% NaCl.

Sanding bob

A small tightly rolled and glued emery cloth designed to be mounted on a mandrel and used on a hand grinder for polishing.


A bulge outside of the finish form area on a draw punch or cavity to take up loose metal or to help control the draw process. Also called a bologna or kidney.


Five-eighth inch hand grinder that is big and cumbersome to use. Used for rough-grinding where there is a large amount of stock to be removed.


Thick oxide coating on material normally associated with hot working. Deposit formed from solution directly in place upon a confining surface.

Scale weight

Used alternately with actual weight.


A process used for spotting large contoured areas by using a spotting stick. See also spotting stick.


Edge condition resulting from nibbling a feature in a turret press. See earing.

Scleroscope hardness

Measure of a material's resistance to localized plastic deformation. Most hardness tests involve indentation, but hardness may be reported as resistance to scratching (file test), or rebound of a projectile bounced off the material (scleroscope hardness). The Scleroscope test consists of dropping a diamond tipped hammer, which falls inside a glass tube under the force of its own weight from a fixed height, onto the test specimen. The height of the rebound travel of the hammer is measured on a graduated scale. The scale of the rebound is arbitrarily chosen and consists on Shore units, divided into 100 parts, which represent the average rebound from pure hardened high-carbon steel. The scale is continued higher than 100 to include metals having greater hardness.


The marring or scratching of any formed part by metal pickup on the punch or die. The reduction in thickness of a material along a line to weaken it intentionally along that line.


Leftover, unused material relegated to recycling.

Scrap cutter

A shear or cutter operated by the press or built into a die for cutting scrap into sizes for convenient removal from the die or disposal.

Scrap strip

See skeleton.

Screw press

A high-speed press in which the ram is activated by a large screw assembly powered by a drive mechanism.


Seal weld

A weld used primarily to obtain tightness and to prevent leakage.

Seam welding

Welding a lengthwise seam in sheet metal either by abutting or overlapping joints.

Secant modulus

The slope of the secant drawn from the origin to any specified point on the stress-strain curve. See also modulus of elasticity.

Section (normal and extreme)

Units: mm (SI), inches (Imperial) The 'normal' range of section thickness which lies within the capacity of the process. As with mass, an 'extreme' range is also stored. Minimum section is determined by considerations of fluid flow in castings, of plastic constraint in forgings and so on. It can usually be reduced by machining.


See details.


Coating defects consisting of the randomly spaced undissolved particles, usually resin particles, which are immersed in the coating. They are raised up in the coating and appear somewhat like fine sand sprinkled throughout the film.

Segment die

Same as split die.

Selective perforation

Hole or slot pattern over a specific portion of a workpiece, normally used for ventilation purposes.

Self fixturing

Part designed to be self-locating into proper position to another part with the use of built-in locators.

Self locking fastener

Fastener which is machined with interference threads or which has a nylon insert or other locking mechanism to securely hold mating fasteners in high torque or vibration applications.

Semiautomatic welding

The equipment controls only the electrode wire feeding. The welding gun movement is controlled by hand.


See half shear.

Series welding

A resistance welding process in which two or more welds are made simultaneously by a single welding transformer with the total current passing through each weld.

Service order number (S.O.#)

Number used to identify special accounts to cover the cost of service work on past model dies only. Numbers can be usually be found in a book in the supervisor's office or work area. They are also called tool order numbers and project numbers.


To forcibly part or separate a discrete portion from a body of material. See cut.


Generally, a local inboard condition on a metal panel which is usually in a high stress area. Also called a birdbath or low spot.

Shake aparts

Term designating a family of parts on a sheet which are held by micro
ties so small that the parts can be removed from the sheet after CNC punching by simply shaking the sheet.

Shaker parts

See shake aparts.

Shape class

Like other researchers in this field, we have explored alternative approaches to the characterization of 'shape' and 'complexity', some based on ideas of symmetry, others on information theory, still others based on an amalgam of experience and intuition. There is not universal agreement. Prismatic shapes result from extrusion, rolling and drawing and turning. Products made from sheet are flat or dished, with or without cut-outs; they are made by processes such as pressing, stamping, rolling and spinning.

Shape control

Ability to produce material to a given geometric flatness standard. See flatness.

Shape defect

Geometric non-uniformity of a strip, such as bent strip, coil set, center buckle, wavy edge, etc.


A secondary shearing or cutting operation in which the surface of a previously cut edge is finished or smoothed by removing a minimal amount of stock.


A type of cutting operation in which the metal object is cut by means of a moving blade and fixed edge or by a pair of moving blades that may be either flat or curved. The type of force that causes, or tends to cause, two contiguous parts of the same body to slide relative to each other in a direction parallel to their plane of contact.

Shear crack

A diagonal, transgranular track caused by shear stresses.

Shear form

See formed tab.

Shear knives

Steels used for lancing the part in a forming operation to control fracturing of the part while forming.

Shear spinning

The art of forming metal over a mold in one pass using hand or hydraulic pressure.

Shear strength

The maximum shear stress a material can sustain. Shear strength is calculated from the maximum load during a shear or torsion test and is based on the original dimensions of the cross section of the specimen.

Shear stress

A stress that exists when parallel planes in metal crystals slide across each other. The stress component tangential to the plane on which the forces act.


Shearing of an edge of stock to an exact dimension from an already existing feature.


Cutting force applied perpendicular to material causing the material to yield and break.

Shearing process - illustration



A pin, rod, ring, or plate operated by mechanical means, air, or a rubber cushion that either ejects blanks, parts, or scrap from a die or releases them from punch, die, or pad surface.


Any material or piece of uniform thickness and of considerable length and width as compared to its thickness. With regard to metal, such pieces under 6.5 mm (1/4 in.) thick are called sheets, and those 6.5 MM (1/4") thick and over are called plates. Occasionally, the limiting thickness for steel to be designated as sheet steel is No. IO Manufacturer's Standard Gage for sheet steel, which is 3.42 mm (0.1345") thick.

Sheet - illustration

Sheet forming

The plastic deformation of a piece of sheet metal by tensile loads into a three-dimensional shape, often without significant changes in sheet thickness or surface characteristics. Compare with bulkforming.

Sheet products

Hot Roll (01) Uncoated, heavy gauge, fully processed in Strip Steel, never cold reduced at Tandem Mill. Cold Roll (02) Uncoated, heavy gauge, primarily processed in Strip Steel, although some goes to the Tin Mill, always cold reduced at Tandem Mill. Galvanized (05,06) "Bath" coated with zinc, heavy gauge, primarily processed thru Strip Steel & Sheet Mill, majority is cold reduced at Tandem Mill.

Sheet separation

In spot, seam, and projection welding, the gap surrounding the weld between faying surfaces, after the joint has been welded.


Another word for a formed cup. A sheet metal part that is the product of the first drawing operation. Also, any cylindrical part or shell closed at one end.

Shielded metal arc welding

See Stick welding.

Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW)

Also known as manual metal arc (MMA) welding or informally as stick welding, is a manual arc welding process that uses a consumable electrode coated in flux to lay the weld. An electric current, in the form of either alternating current or direct current from a welding power supply, is used to form an electric arc between the electrode and the metals to be joined. As the weld is laid, the flux coating of the electrode disintegrates, giving off vapors that serve as a shielding gas and providing a layer of slag, both of which protect the weld area from atmospheric contamination.

Shielded welding

An arc welding process in which protection from the atmosphere is obtained through use of a flux, decomposition of the electrode covering, or an inert gas.

Shielding gas

Inert gas used for oxidation protection during welding. Protective gas used to prevent atmospheric contamination of the weld pool.

Shim steel

Steel which has been rolled thin to a hard condition and very close tolerance.


A thin piece of material used between two surfaces to obtain a proper fit, adjustment, or alignment. Shims are also thin metal sheets that are inserted between the die and press to align the binder surface of the die and alter binder pressure.

Shimmy cam

A cam designed to move in one direction land then reverse direction during the down stroke of the press so work is done in both directions.


A generic term referring to the upper or lower component of a die set.

Shot blasting

Cleaning surface of metal by air blast, using metal shot as an abrasive.


See Root Face.

Shoulder bolts

Bolts that are used most commonly for accurate locating or pivot/slide mounting points.

Shoulder screw

A socket head screw with a larger machined body than the threaded end. Made to bottom on the body's shoulder. Used to contain pads or springs and for other tasks. Sometimes referred to as shoulder or stripper bolts.


Short circuiting of a (weld) current through a previously applied weld nearby.

Shut height

Clearance in a press between ram and bed with ram down and adjustment up.


See chute.

Silicon carbide

Mineral used for abrasive metal removal.

Single action

Press utilizing one moving element.

Single-action die

A form die that has no blank holder action since it is used with a single-action press without the use of a draw cushion.

Single-action press

A forming press that operates with a single function, such as moving a punch into a die with no simultaneous action for holding down the clank or ejecting the formed work.


In welding, a dimple on the surface of stock caused by shrinking of the weld during cooling.


Secondary forming or squeezing operations needed to square up, set down, flatten, or otherwise correct surfaces to produce specified dimensions and tolerances. See restriking. Some burnishing, broaching, drawing, and shaving operations are also called sizing. A finishing operation for correcting ovality in tubing. Final pressing of a sintered powder metallurgy part.



The strip of stock from a progressive die starting at the point of entry through the last station. Also called stock strip, scrap strip, or carrier strip. Also see web.

Skid lines

Line seen on the finished part when the stock slips on a draw punch. This is caused by the die not being timed correctly or when the forming of a shape is at such an off angle.

Skid marks (roll slip)

Polished or burnished streaks across the stock surface resulting from improperly set roller driven material processing equipment. Skid marks are transverse to the direction of rolling.


A thin reproduction of the outside surface of a part detail, or model. Normally made of fiberglass and/or a plastic material. Used for spotting, machining, etc.

Slag inclusion

Non-metallic solid material entrapped in the weld metal or between the weld metal and the base metal.

Sled runner

An adjustable tripper for activating an air-operated valve that controls automation. Also called striker.


The main reciprocating member of a press, guided in the press frame, to which the punch or upper die is fastened; sometimes called the ram. The inner slide of a double-action press is called the plunger or punch-holder slide while the outer slide is called the blank holder slide. The third slide of a triple-action press is called the lower slide, and the slide of a hydraulic press is often called the platen.

Slide adjustment

The distance that a press slide position can be altered to change the shut height of the die space. The adjustment can be made by hand or by power mechanism.

Slide counterbalance

A device used on the slide of large and small presses to reduce vibration and to assist the brake and clutch in functioning properly. Counterbalances are actuated by springs or air pressure. They relieve much of the load of the slide and punch from the press connection and shaft, thereby reducing the friction on the brake.

Slide counterbalance pressure (counterbalance pressure)

A device used on the slide of large and small presses to reduce vibration and to assist the brake and clutch in functioning properly. Counterbalances are actuated by springs or air pressure. They relieve much of the load the slide and punch from the press connection and shaft, thereby reducing the friction on the brake.

Slide forming

A high-volume stamping process in which a machine with multiple slides sequentially performs various operations (i.e. blanking, piercing, forming, etc.)

Slide hammer

A weight that slides along a rod with a head on one end and threads on the other end. Normally used to pull dowels and details. Commonly called a dowel puller.

Slit edge

The relatively smooth edge produced from side trimming or slitting. See mill edge.


Area on the Pickler where the strip is side trimmed (slit) to its proper width. Side trims the edges of the strip to certain width in the customer’s specifications, or the vertical cutting of coil material to form narrow strip product.

Slitter - illustration


Cutting or shearing along single lines to cut strips from a sheet or to cut along lines of a given length or contour in a sheet or workpiece. Cutting sheet or strip metal to width by rotary slitters.

Slitting process - illustration


Distance from a slot edge to the inside edge of a formed feature.


The metal removed when punching a hole in a forging; also termed punchout. The forging stock for one workpiece cut to length. See also blank.

Slug marks

Surface defects caused by scrap being indented into the metal surface.

Slug trails

Passage ways for slugs to fall out of trim and pierce dies. Slug marks in draw and form dies.

Soft tooling

A term generally applied to the fabrication of metal parts using computer controlled technology incorporating CNC turret presses, laser profilers and press brakes.


The ability of the CAD software to realize that a volume is filled with solid matter. These CAD systems can display a design so that it looks like a solid object. Includes recognition of surfaces and wireframes.


Small chips or fragments which are sometimes given off by electrodes during the welding operation. This problem is especially common with heavy coated electrodes.


The breaking off of flake - like metal particles from a metal surface.

Spangle free

A galvanized product in which the spangle formation has been suppressed; accomplished by eliminating Antimony and Lead in the molten zinc bath during the production of Hot Dipped Galvanized. Galvannealed is always spangle free.


Fabricating activity to sharpen radii, form, or detail in previously formed area of a part. See restrike.


See back-ups.


In welding, droplets of matter deposited as contaminants. The metal particles blown away from the welding arc. These particles do not become part of the completed weld.


Spear punching

The process of cutting or tearing a hole in metal, which does not generate a slug. Instead, the metal is pushed back to form a jagged flange on the backside of the hole. Also called spearing.


The process of cutting or tearing a hole in metal, which does not generate a slug. Instead, the metal is pushed back to form a jagged flange on the backside of the hole. See spear punching or extruding.

Special purpose work holding devices and machinery

Precision-made mass production tooling such as jigs and fixtures, but also includes robotic arm end effectors (grippers / holders) for use on industrial robots. Special purpose machines / equipment may also be manufactured to carry-out specific tasks on a mass production line such as winding electric motors, assembling bearing assemblies, filling bottles and cans, or any other automated process.


A plate that bridges two or more transfer pins and distributes force equally. Commonly used for lifter, light weight pads, and positive knockouts.


The forming of a seamless hollow metal part by forcing a rotating blank to conform to a shaped mandrel that rotates concentrically with the blank. In the typical application, a flat-rolled metal blank is forced against the mandrel by a blunt, rounded tool; however, other stock (notably, welded or seamless tubing) can be formed. A roller is sometimes used as the working end of the tool. The procedure of making sheet metal discs into hollow shapes by pressing the metal against a rotating form (spinning chuck) by a tool.

Spinning blank

A circular disk made from sheet or plate metal.


See draw bead.

Split die

A die made of parts that can be separated for ready removal of the workpiece. Also known as segment die.


Failure and localized separation of a sheet metal, also known as tears or fractures.


A cylindrical headed keeper fastened by one or more socket head screws used to retain and control pad travel.

Spooled coil

A coil having edges that are turned up (like a spool of thread).

Spot face

Circular flat surface as a bearing area for hardware. Also refers to the smooth area around a hole for a fastener. Also called sump.

Spot welding

Usually made on materials having some type of overlapping joint design. Spot welding can refer to resistance, MIG or TIG spot welding. Resistance spot welds are made from electrodes on both sides of the joint, while TIG and MIG spots are made from one side only. See electrode, MIG, and TIG.


The fitting of one part of a die to another by applying an oil or water color to the surface. Also refers to the smooth area around a hole for a fastener marked by the transferred color.

Spotting aid

See skin or cast.

Spotting rack

See skin or cast.

Spotting scale

A thin hardened steel rule type material used to locate high points or areas when spotting large form areas such as hood punches.

Spotting stick

A thin strip of wood used to locate high points or areas when spotting large form areas such as hood punches. The stick is usually made of mahogany. Also called mahogany stick. See also scaling.

Spring back

Partial rebounding of formed material caused by its elasticity.

Spring can

A sheet metal cylinder open at one end and closed at the other. Used to retain the various segments of a spring in the event that it breaks.

Spring loaded panel fasteners

Inserted fastener which is equipped with a floating captive screw, spring and retainer such that the hardware will remain in the panel, ready for use, when the panel has been disassembled from its mating component.

Spring plate

A separately mounted plate used to retain and provide access to die springs.

Spring steel strip

Any of a number of strip steels produced for use in the manufacture of steel springs or where high tensile properties are requires marketed in the annealed state, hard rolled or as hardened and tempered strip.

Spring-back allowance

The allowance designed into a die for bending metal a greater amount than specified for the finished piece, to compensate for spring-back.


Measure of perpendicularity of adjacent edges or surfaces.

Squeeze block

A piece of steel with a spring-loaded pin held under tension by a screw. Used to check distance between two parallel surfaces or press ram adjustment.



Tolerance accumulations.

Stainless steel

Various terrific alloys exhibiting high oxidation resistance through the alloying with chromium and nickel. Corrosion resistant steel of a wide variety, but always containing a high percentage of chromium. Stainless steels are highly resistant to corrosion attack by organic acids, weak mineral acids, atmospheric oxidation, etc.


Discoloration on the surface of sheet metal, caused during mill processing.


Method of fastening using displaced material for retention.


The general term to denote all press workings. To impress lettering or designs by pressure into the surface of a material, often metal.


A term used to refer to various press forming operations in coining, embossing, blanking, and pressing. Forming metals using pressure into the surface of a metal, usually strip or sheet.

Stamping flange angle

Angle measured from the mating flange area to the upturned flange formed by the flanging operation.

Standard vee die

See v die.

Standoff blocks

Blocks normally located near each rider pin to prevent the die from closing too far. Used to determine the proper ram adjustment. See stop blocks and leveling blocks.

Starting ring

See pre-hem steel.

Starting steel

See pre-hem steel.

Steel rule die

A die employing a thin strip of steel formed to the outline of a part and a flat metal plate or block of wood for the punch. Used to cut non-metallic material, soft metals, and low run prototype sheet metal parts. Also called cookie cutter die.


See details.

Stick welding (SMAW or Shielded metal arc)

An arc welding process which melts and joins metals by heating them with an arc, between a covered metal electrode and the work. Shielding gas is obtained from the electrode outer coating, often called flux. Filler metal is primarily obtained from the electrode core.

Stiffening rib

Embossed feature in a sheet metal workpiece which is added to make the part more rigid.

Stitch and run die

Staking same size blanks together with each stroke of the press forming a continuous strip. Then feeding this staked strip through the die as in a coil.


A general term used to refer to a supply of metal in any form or shape and also to an individual piece of metal that is formed, forged, or machined to make parts.

Stock check

A device used to grip the material as the feed retracts, preventing movement of the material during the forming cycle.

Stock guide

A device used to direct a strip or sheet material thru the die.

Stock reel

A powered or non-powered device used to support a coil of material as it is fed into the machine.

Stock straightener

A machine mounted device consisting of a series of adjustable rolls used to straighten wire or strip stock as it comes off the coil.

Stock strip

See skeleton.


A coarse grit hone that is used dry.



Lower section of a die on which the part nests. Also called lower adapter, boss, die post, horn, locator, master, or master plug. A base for a punch retainer to enable the punch to reach thru the, pad or stripper. Also called a pedestal, punch riser, and riser.


A device for positioning stock or parts in a die.

Stop, automatic

A device for positioning stock in a die. A mechanism that initiates the stopping action of a press after its complete cycle. A device which initiates the stopping action of a press at the start of operating troubles for protecting either the die or the operator, such as misfeeding, buckling of strip stock, or non-discharge of blanks.

Stop blocks

Blocks normally located near each rider pin to prevent the die from closing too far. Used to determine the proper ram adjustment. Also called stand off blocks and bottoming blocks.

Stop pin

A device for positioning stock or parts in a die.

Storage blocks

Urethane blocks generally used in trim and pierce dies to prevent chipping of steels during storage and handling. Also aids in noise reduction, leveling the press ram, and reducing die shock.

Straight cam

A cam that travels 90° to press stroke. Also called horizontal cam.

Straight perimeter contour

Curvature of the peripheral edge that has no radius.

Straightener rolls

See roll straightener.

Straight-side press

An upright press open at front and back with the columns (uprights) at the ends of the bed.


The amount of elongation or compression that occurs in a metal at a given stress or load produced by an outside force. Generally in terms of inches elongation per inch of material. Strains may be either positive (elongation) or negative (compression), and may be either elastic (recoverable) or plastic (permanent).

Strain aging

The changes in ductility, hardness, yield point, and tensile strength that occur when a metal or alloy that has been cold worked is stored for some time. In steel, strain aging is characterized by a loss of ductility and a corresponding increase in hardness, yield point, and tensile strength.

Strain hardening

An increase in hardness and strength caused by plastic deformation at temperatures below the recrystallization range. Also known as work hardening.

Strain hardening coefficient

See strain hardening exponent.

Strain hardening exponent

The value n in the relationship = KEn, where is the true stress; E is the true strain; and K, which is called the strength coefficient, is equal to the true stress at a true strain of I.O. The strain-hardening exponent, also called n-value, is equal to the slope of the true stress/true strain curve up to maximum load, when plotted on log-log coordinates. The n-value relates to the ability of a sheet material to be stretched in metalworking operations. The higher the n-value, the better the formability (stretchability).

Strain-rate sensitivity (m value)

The increase in stress () needed to cause a certain increase in plastic strain rate (i) at a given level of plastic strain (E) and a given temperature (T). Strain-rate sensitivity = m = A log a@ (A log i).T stress. The intensity of the internally distributed forces or components of forces that resist a change in the volume or shape of a material that is or has been subjected to external forces. Stress is expressed in force per unit area. Stress can be normal (tension or compression) or shear.


The internal force or forces set up within a metal body by outside applied forces or loads.

Stress cracking

The fracturing of parts which have retained residual stresses from cold forming, heat treating, or rapid cooling.

Stress raisers

Design features (such as sharp corners) or mechanical defects (such as notches) that act to intensify the stress at these locations.

Stress-strain curve

See stress-strain diagram.

Stress-strain diagram

A graph in which corresponding values of stress and strain from a tension, compression, or torsion test are plotted against each other. Values of stress are usually plotted vertically (ordinates or y-axis) and values of strain horizontally (abscissas or x-axis). Also known as deformation curve and stress-strain curve.


Stretch drawing

The process of holding a blank with an upper and lower ring, the lower ring being mounted on a nitrogen actuated pressure pad. Both upper and lower rings are lowered to a dwell position stretching the material over the lower die. The upper die then closes to complete the forming operation of this die.

Stretch former

A machine used to perform stretch forming operations. A device adaptable to a conventional press for accomplishing stretch forming.

Stretch forming

The shaping of a sheet or part, usually of uniform cross section, by first applying suitable tension or stretch and then wrapping it around a die of the desired shape. This method is more rapid than hammering and beating.

Stretcher leveled

A flattening process in which a material is stretched to achieve a desired flatness tolerance.

Stretcher leveling

The leveling of a piece of sheet metal (that is, removing warp and distortion) by gripping it at both ends and subjecting it to a stress higher than its yield strength.

Stretcher straightening

A process for straightening rod, tubing, and shapes by the application of tension at the ends of the stock. The products are elongated a definite amount to remove warpage.

Stretcher strains

Elongated markings that appear on the surface of some sheet materials when deformed just past the yield point. These markings lie approximately parallel to the direction of maximum shear stress and are the result of localized yielding. See also Luders lines.


The extension of the surface of a sheet in all directions. In stretching, the flange of the flat blank is securely clamped. Deformation is restricted to the area initially within the die. The stretching limit is the onset of metal failure. The "n" in the equation = Kn which equates the true stress to the true strain of a material under plastic deformation. The n-value is measured from a tensile test by finding the slope of the true-stress to true-strain in the plastic region. It is also referred to as the n-value.


See sled runner.

Striking surface

Those areas on the faces of a set of dies that are designed to meet when the upper die and lower die are brought together. The striking surface helps protect impressions from impact shock and aids in maintaining longer die life.


A flat-rolled metal product of some maximum thickness and width arbitrarily dependent on the type of metal; narrower than sheet. A sheet of metal whose length is many times its width.

Strip edge forming

The use of a rolling technique to edge roll slit strip with shaped edge rolls to provide an edge finish equal to the material's surface finish. Also called edge conditioning.

Strip steel (cold rolled)

A flat cold rolled steel product (Other than Flat Wire) 23 15/16 and narrower; under .250 in thickness, which has been cold reduced to desired decimal thickness and temper on single stand, single stand reversing, or tandem cold mills in coil form from coiled hot rolled pickled strip steel.


A plate designed to remove, or strip, sheet metal stock from the punching members during the punching process. Strippers are also used to guide small precision punches in close-tolerance dies, to guide scrap away from dies, and to assist in the cutting action. Strippers are made in two types: fixed and movable.

Stripper bolts

A socket head screw with a larger machined body than the threaded end. Stripper bolts are made to bottom on the body's shoulder. They are used to contain pads or springs and for other tasks and are also called shoulder bolts or shoulder screws.

Stripper insert

See window.

Stripper marks

Imprints on one side of the stock around pierced holes, caused by punch strippers.

Stripper plate

A plate (solid or moveable) used to strip the workpiece or part from the punch. It may also guide the stock.

Stripper punch

A punch that serves as the top or bottom of the shoulder screw cavity and later moves farther into the die to eject the part or compact. See also ejector rod and knockout.


Process of disengaging tooling from the workpiece.


Sheet material, sheared into narrow long pieces.


Ram travel from top dead center (TDC) to bottom dead center (BDC).

Stroke (up or down)

The vertical movement of a ram during half of the cycle, from the full open to the full closed position or vice versa.

Stroke of a press

The reciprocating motion of a press slide, specified as the number of inches between the terminal points of the motion.

Structural quality

Material applicable to the various classes of structures, indicated by the standard specifications, which is suitable for the different mechanical operations employed for the fabrication of such structures. Structural quality (the characteristics of which are defined in the standard specifications of the American Society for Testing Materials) represents the quality of steel produced under regular or normal manufacturing conditions.

Stud welding

An arc welding process in which fusion is produced by heating with an electric arc drawn between a metal stud, or similar part, and the other workpiece, until the surfaces to be joined are properly heated. They are brought together under pressure.

Subnerged arc welding (SAW)

A process by which metals are joined by an arc or arcs between a bare metal electrode or electrodes and the work. Shielding is supplied by a granular, fusible material usually brought to the work from a flux hopper.


Original material surface to which a coating is applied.


A formed recess area of a part usually for clearance. See spot face.

Superior hone

A tool which employs bonded abrasive stones in a special holder to remove stock and improve surface finish of holes.


The ability of certain metals to develop extremely high tensile elongations at elevated temperatures and under controlled rates of deformation.

Support plate

A plate that supports a draw ring or draw plate. It also serves as a spacer.


The ability of the CAD software to recognize that a closed geometric shape represents a surface of a part. Includes recognition of wireframes.

Surface distortion

Surface distortions are wrinkles formed on the grade-A surfaces of panels due to improper hemming operation.

Surface inclusions

Debris rolled into the skin of material causing a depression or thinly coated pocket.

Surge tank

A tank designed to accept a volume of air, gas on the compression stroke of a cylinder and to provide an extra volume of air, gas, or oil on the power stroke of the cylinder. Also prevents excess pressure buildup in a cylinder and/or lines.

Surgical stainless steel types

Any of the 300 series stainless steels with an 18% chromium and 8% nickel content. Also includes the PH type of stainless steels.

Swift cup test

A simulative test in which circular blanks of various diameter are clamped in a die ring and deep drawn into a cup by a flat-bottomed cylindrical punch. The ratio of the largest blank diameter that can be drawn successfully to the cup diameter is known as the limiting draw ratio (LDR) or deformation limit.

Swivel ring

A load-centering eye bolt that allows the eye to pivot 180° and the base to swivel 360° that allows the bolt to be pulled at any angle without fear of bending or breaking the bolt.


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For more information about Advantage Fabricated Metals and the metal forming and welding services we provide, please fill out our contact form or call us at 1-815-323-1310.

Advantage Fabricated Metals
A Division of Corrugated Metals, Inc.

We invest in our customers.™
3575 Morreim Drive • Belvidere, Illinois 61008
Phone: 1-815-323-1310 • Fax: 1-815-323-1317