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Metal forming and welding glossary - T

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Table top hemmer (hemming gate)

Lamb's table top hemmer.

Tack weld

Usually refers to a temporary weld used to hold parts in place while more extensive. final welds are made. In some sheet metal applications, tack gelds may provide sufficient strength to eliminate the need for an "all around" fillet weld.

Tangent bending

The forming of one or more identical bends having parallel axes by wiping sheet metal around one or more radius dies in a single operation. The sheet, which may have side flanges, is clamped against the radius die and then made to conform to the radius die by pressure from a rocker-plate die that moves along the periphery of the radius die.

Tangent modulus

The slope of the stress-strain curve at any specified stress or strain. See also modulus of elasticity.


Operation to create internal threads by either cutting or forming.

Tear drop hem

Preferred for lower strength materials.

Temper code

Industry-standard code that indicates the hardness of the steel.

Temper designation

Identifying systems to denote the hardness of a particular material.

Temper rolling

Subjecting metal sheet or strip to a slight amount of cold rolling following annealing to forestall stretcher strains. Also termed "pinch pass" or skin rolled.

Tempered and polished spring steel strip

Also known as clock spring steel. This product, while similar to general description under heading of Tempered Spring Steel Strip, is manufactured and processed with great and extreme care exercised in each step of its production. Manufactured from carbon range of .90/1.03% with Rockwell range C 48/51. Clock spring quality has been ground and polished with edges dressed. It is usually supplied dark blue in color and has a wide range of uses, such as coiled and flat mechanical springs, ignition vibrator springs, springs for timing devices, springs for the electric and electronic fields, steel tapes, rules, etc.

Tempered spring steel strip

Any medium or high carbon (excluding clock spring) strip steel of spring quality which has been hardened and tempered to meet specifications. Where specification calls for blue or straw color, the same is accomplished by passing through heat prepared at proper temperature depending on color required. Blue is developed at approximately 600°F.


A metal heat treating process to remove internal stresses at temperatures above those required for stress relieving.


Tensile strength

The greatest longitudinal stress steel can sustain without breaking.

Tensile stress

A stress that causes two parts of an elastic body, on either side of a typical stress plane, to pull apart. Contrast with compressive stress.

Tensile (tension) test

A destructive mechanical test whereby strength and ductility properties are measured. See tensile strength.


The internal force or forces set up within a body, which cause or tend to cause, extension or stretching.

Test coupon

A sample of a casting or steel used for checking the properties of that casting or steel.


Structure of a surface as it affects appearance or feel.

The female of a complete die

A complete tool used in a press for any operation or series of operations such as forming, impressing, piercing, and cutting. The upper member or members are attached to the slide (or slides) of the press and the lower member is clamped or bolted to the bed or bolster with the die members being so shaped as to cut or form the material placed between them when the press makes a stroke. The female part of a complete die assembly as described in the previous sentence.

Thermit welding

A group of welding processes in which fusion is produced by heating with superheated liquid metal and slag resulting from a chemical reaction between a metal oxide and aluminum, with or without the application of pressure. Filler metal, when used, is obtained from the liquid metal.

Thickness gage or feeler stock

A hardened and tempered, edged, ground, and polished thin section, high carbon strip steel. Usually in thicknesses from .001" to .050" manufactured to extremely close tolerances. It is used primarily for determining measurement of openings by tool and die makers, machinists, and automobile technicians. It is prepared in handy pocket size knife-like holders containing an assembly of various thicknesses. Also prepared in standard 12" lengths with rounded ends in 10' and 25' coils. Universally used in the metal industry.

Thickness strain analysis (TSA)

The ultimate strength of a material, measured in pounds per square inch in tension on the original cross section tested, which, if exceeded, causes sectional deformation leading to ultimate rupture.


Gauge or depth of material.

Third action

A term used to show the action at the bottom of the press stroke to produce form in the opposite direction of the upper press ram. Usually, done in a triple-action press.

Thread rolling tap

Tool to generate internal threads by displacing and flowing metal into a thread shape.

Three-point bending

The bending of a piece of metal or a structural member in which the object is placed across two supports and force is applied between and in opposition to them. See V-bend die.

Throat (gap)

The open space in a gap-frame press behind the slide center line.


The distance from the centerline of the crankshaft or main shaft to the centerline of the crankpin or eccentric in crank or eccentric presses. Equal to one half of the stroke. See also crank press and eccentric press.


Tie rod

Device consisting of a steel rod, threaded at both ends for nuts, for tying sections of dies together either by design or to repair a die which has been broken. Steel rods, threaded at both ends for nuts, used to hold the bed, uprights, and crown of a press together under a predetermined compressive load.


See micro ties.

TIG weld (Tungsten Inert Gas)

TIG is short for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW). In the TIG welding process, an arc is formed between a non-consumable tungsten electrode and the metal being welded. Gas is fed through the torch to shield the electrode and molten weld pool. TIG is most commonly used in high quality, high precision, welding applications.

Tin plate

Steel that is coated with commercially pure tin.

Toe crack

A crack in the base metal occurring at the toe of the weld.

Toe of the weld

The junction between the face of the weld and the base metal.

Toggle draw die

See double-action die.

Toggle drawing press

A press in which the outer or blank holder slide is actuated by a series of toggle joints and the inner slide by the crankshaft or eccentrics.

Toggle press

Any mechanical press in which a slide or slides are actuated by one or more toggle joints. A term applied to double- and triple-action presses.


The range of variation permitted in maintaining a specific dimension or specification for any characteristic of the product.

Tolerance limit

The permissible deviation from the desired value.


A tangible instrumentality having a surface portion which is designed and intended to engage or react against work with sufficient force to effect an operation of the class type. A core, mandrel, anvil, or the like, which may be "passive" in the sense of supplying only reaction force is included in this definition. The tool may be either transitory or enduring. It may be destroyed in a single use.

Tool (mandrel, chuck)

The mold from which the part is made.

Tool life

Units: number; or kg (SI), lb (Imperial); or m (SI), ft (Imperial). The tool life is a measure of the output which is possible before the tooling must be replaced. For batch processes it is measured in number of units, or in total mass of product; for continuous processes it is measured in total mass or length. When the production run exceeds the tool life, tooling must be replaced and the cost adjusted.

Tool order number

See project number.

Tool steel

Any high carbon or alloy steel capable of being suitable tempered for use in the manufacture of tools.

Tooling cost

Units: Currency (UK£, US$ etc.). The tooling cost is the cost of the tooling (that is, molds, die, jigs and fixtures) which are totally dedicated to the production of a single product. This cost must be pro-rated over the number of products produced in the production run. Processes with high tooling costs have high economic batch-sizes.

Tooling holes

Openings provided in parts far location purposes during production.

Torch brazing

A brazing process in which bonding is produced by heating with a gas flame and by using a nonferrous filler metal having a melting point above 800° F (427° C), but below that of the base metal. The filler metal is distributed in the joint of capillary attraction.


Turning force.


A twisting deformation of a solid or tubular body about an axis in which lines that were initially parallel to the axis become helices.

Torsional stress

The shear stress on a transverse cross section resulting from a twisting action.

Total elongation

The comparison between the original and final thickness converted to strain readings and plotted on thickness strain diagrams.

Total indicator reading (T.I.R.)

Absolute sum of all dimensional variance.

Transfer die

Variation of a progressive die where the part is transferred from station to station by a mechanical system. Mainly used where the part has to be free from the strip to allow operations to be performed in a free state.

Transfer mechanism

Apparatus used to move a part between die stations.

Transfer pin

A pin used in-conjunction with a die cushion to transfer pressure from the cushion to the bottom of a die pad. Also called cushion pins and air pins. See pressure pins.

Transfer press

A press having an integral mechanism for transfer and control of the workpiece.

Trim edge

Outermost edge, which defines the perimeter of the part.


The term applied to the operation of cutting scrap off a partially or fully shaped part to an established trim line.

Triple-action press

A press having three moving slides, two slides moving in the same direction and a third lower slide moving upward through the fixed bed in a direction opposite to the blank holder and inner slides. This permits reverse-drawing, forming, or beading operations while both upper actions are dwelling.


Cleaning articles by rotating them in a cylinder with cleaning materials.


A handling device which screws into a die or die section for handling or turning over. Usually referring to a J-hook, but also called a die hook or handling hook. Also see turnover device.

Turnover device

A device to turn over a part between production operations. Sometimes called a turnover.


Rotary tool holding device in CNC punch presses.

Turret press

Automatic punch press indexing the material and selecting the intended tool out of the rotary tool holding device (turret) totally by computer control for piercing, blanking and forming workpieces as programmed.


The rotation of two opposing edges of material in opposite directions.


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