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Metal forming and welding glossary - W

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Walking cam

A cam attached to the upper half of the die with a driver on the bottom half of the die. Also called an aerial cam, dog leg cam, or flying cam


As opposed to hem curved outboard and hem deflection warp is the term used for the local curve at the hem edge.


Generic designation for a variety of organic finishes which indicates that they are compounded with water as a dilutant rather than a volatile organic solvent.


Substance, which dissolves in water.

Watts per square inch

Measure of speed based on power level of laser cutting machine.


A condition of non-flatness. A fabricated piece of metal that is not completely flat and has a slight wave following the direction of rolling and beyond the standard limitation for flatness.


Not flat. A slight wave following the direction of rolling and beyond the standard limitation for flatness.

Wear plates

Plates made of hardened tool, steel, or bronze. Used where dies receive the greatest wear to enable resurfacing and shimming of the plates to renew wear surfaces. Normally they are used in pairs, one steel and the mating one bronze.


A narrow strip, which connects the part to the skeleton or adjoining part. The center, along the axis, of a twist drill. Any narrow section of a die connecting one section to another.


Material between two openings or edges. See micro ties. In some industries, thin material to be punched.


A localized fusion of metals produced by heating to suitable temperatures. Pressure and/or filler metal may or may not be used. The filler material has a melting point approximately the same or below that of the base metals, but always above 800° F (427° C).

Weld-to-edge distance

Minimum distance from a spot weld to the material edge to create an acceptable spot weld.

Weld-to-form distance

Minimum distance from a formed area to electrodes to avoid shorting.

Weld-to-weld spacing

Minimum distance between spot welds to avoid shunting through the existing weld spot.


An assembly of parts welded together. A unit formed by welding together an assembly of pieces.

Weld accessibility

Ease of reaching the weld area with the torch or electrode.

Weld bead

A weld deposit resulting from a pass.

Weld distortion

Depression or bulge on surface, caused by thermal expansion.

Weld metal

That portion of a weld that has been melted during welding.

Weld nut

Internally threaded hardware designed to be spot or projection welded onto sheet metal parts.

Weld stud

Externally threaded hardware in various lengths in headed and head-less version, welded in place.


Ability of a material to be fused successfully without special processing.

Welder certification

Written certification proving that a welder has produced welds meeting prescribed standards.

Welder performance qualification

The demonstration of a welder's ability to produce welds meeting prescribed standards.


Welding is a process for joining similar metals. Welding joins metals by melting and fusing the base metals being joined and the filler metal applied. Welding employs pinpointed, localized heat input. Most welding involves ferrous-based metals such as steel and stainless steel. Welding covers a temperature range of 1500° F - 3000° F. Weld joints are usually stronger than, or as strong as, the base metals being joined. Typically, welding is used for forging, blacksmithing, oil pipelines, and food equipment applications. See electrode, MIG, and TIG.

Welding procedure

The detailed methods and practices including all joint welding procedures involved in the production of a weldment.

Welding technique

The details of a manual, machine, or semiautomatic welding operation which, within the limitations of the prescribed joint welding procedure, are controlled by the welder or welding operator.



A separately mounted steel used to gain access to perishable details or other die components. Also called pad window, stripper insert, or insert.

Wipe die

Forming tool using two opposing edges, separated by one material thickness, moving past each other to form material.

Wiping steel

A steel used in various forming operations in which a narrow metal strip at the edge of a sheet or metal part is bent down along a straight or curved line. It is also referred to as flange steel.

Wire feed speed

The rate of speed, measured in millimeters/second or inches/minute at which a filler metal is consumed in arc welding.

Wire form

A formed metal part made from wire that is usually fabricated on a slide forming machine.

Wire line

A standard dimension from the bed of the slide forming machine to the material used in tool layout.


A metal-reducing process in which a wire rod is pulled or drawn through a single die or a series of continuous dies, thereby reducing its diameter. Because the volume of the wire remains the same, the length of the wire changes according to its new diameter.


The capability of the CAD software to represent a design as a three dimensional arrangement of lines and arcs.

Work (strain) hardening coefficient

Shown as n. It is a mathematical value in the generalized (Swift's or Krupkowski's) power law.

Work hardening

Increase in tensile strength of material resulting from cold working process. See strain hardening.

Work hole

See tooling hole.

Work to tight fitting tolerances

Skilled trade-persons are often called upon to assemble, produce and repair components to close tolerances. This means that they have to work to a specified size and make the components as stated in the drawing of the part. If parts are not made to close tolerance the clearance or lack of clearance may cause the equipment to fail prematurely.


See formability.


Mechanical device which holds a workpiece.

Workholder mark

Marring of material through the use of clamping device.


That piece of metal or object that is intended to be subjected to, or is being subjected to, any of the metal forming processes such as casting, forging, stamping and machining.


An instrument that employs ultrasonic sound waves to measure the thickness of steel.

Wrap forming

See stretch forming.

Wring fit

Class of fit which is between a slip fit and a press fit. Usually requiring a slight twisting action to put the parts together.


A coating defect consisting of the formation of small ridges or folds in the coating which resemble the surface of a prune, but are usually smaller in size.


Describes material which has been plastically deformed into shape as by mill rolling.


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A Division of Corrugated Metals, Inc.

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