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Metal forming and welding glossary - XYZ

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A radiographic test method used to detect internal defects in a weld.


Evidence of plastic deformation in structural materials. Also known as plastic flow or creep.

Yield point

The first stress in a material, usually less than the maximum attainable stress, at which an increase in strain occurs without an increase in stress during tensile testing. Only certain metals-those which exhibit a localized, heterogeneous type of transition from elastic to plastic deformation, produce a yield point. If there is a decrease in stress after yielding, a distinction can be made between upper and lower yield points.

Yield point elongation

The extension associated with discontinuous yield which occurs at approximately constant load following the onset of plastic flow. It is associated with the propagation of Luder lines or bands.

Yield strength

The stress at which a material exhibits a specified limiting deviation from the proportionality of stress to strain during tensile testing. An offset of 0.2% is used for many metals. Compare with tensile strength and yield stress. The stress level of highly ductile materials, such as structural steels, at which large strains take place without further increase in stress.

Yield stress

A stress at which a steel exhibits the first measurable permanent plastic deformation. The level of stress when plastic flow begins during a uniaxial tensile test.

Young's modulus or elastic modulus

The stress at which a material initially exhibits permanent plastic deformation in a tensile test.


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